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©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 1 Defect testing l Objectives To understand testing techniques that are geared.

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Presentation on theme: "©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 1 Defect testing l Objectives To understand testing techniques that are geared."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 1 Defect testing l Objectives To understand testing techniques that are geared to discover program faults To introduce guidelines for interface testing To understand specific approaches to object- oriented testing To understand the principles of CASE tool support for testing

2 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 2 The testing process l Component testing Testing of individual program components Usually the responsibility of the component developer Tests are derived from the developers experience l Integration testing Testing of groups of components integrated to create a system or sub-system The responsibility of an independent testing team Tests are based on a system specification

3 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 3 Defect testing l The goal of defect testing is to discover defects in programs l A successful defect test is a test which causes a program to behave in an anomalous way l Tests show the presence, not the absence of defects l Test data – Inputs which have been devised to test the system l Test cases – Test data and the predicted outputs if the system operates according to its specification

4 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 4 l Only exhaustive testing can show a program is free from defects However, exhaustive testing is impossible l Testing old capabilities is more important than testing new capabilities l Testing typical situations is more important than boundary value cases But – boundary value cases should not be ignored! Testing priorities

5 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 5 Black-box testing l An approach to testing where the program is considered as a black-box Nothing is known about the system structure l The program test cases are based on the system specification l Test planning can begin early in the software process l Acceptance testing is an example of black-box testing

6 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 6 Black-box testing

7 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 7 Equivalence partitioning l Input data and output results often fall into different classes where all members of a class are related l Each of these classes is an equivalence partition where the program behaves in an equivalent way for each class member l A limited number of representative test cases should be chosen from each partition

8 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 8 Equivalence partitioning

9 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 9 Structural testing l Sometime called white-box testing l Derivation of test cases according to program structure l Objective is to exercise (cover) certain aspect of the program Statement coverage Branch coverage »Condition coverage looks at every subexpression in a branch Path coverage l Leverages a program flow graph Nodes represent program decisions and arcs represent the flow of control

10 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 10 Path Coverage l Objective: ensure the set of test cases executes each path through the program at least once l Although all paths are executed, all combinations of paths are not executed l Disadvantages The number of paths is exponential to the number of branches Adding one additional branch could double the number of paths to test Many paths are impossible to exercise due to the relationships of data

11 Example: Binary Search Flow Graph l Independent Paths 1, 2, 3, 8, 9 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 2 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 2 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 2, 8, 9 l Test cases should be derived so that all of these paths are executed

12 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 12 Integration testing l Tests complete systems or subsystems composed of integrated components l Integration testing should be black-box testing with tests derived from the specification l Main difficulty is localising errors l Incremental integration testing reduces this problem Integrate A and B - test Integrate AB and C - test Integrate ABC and D - test

13 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 13 Approaches to integration testing l Top-down testing Start with high-level system and integrate from the top-down replacing individual components by stubs where appropriate l Bottom-up testing Integrate individual components in levels until the complete system is created l In practice, most integration involves a combination of these strategies

14 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 14 Interface testing l Takes place when modules or sub-systems are integrated to create larger systems l Objectives are to detect faults due to interface errors or invalid assumptions about interfaces l Particularly important for object- oriented development as objects are defined by their interfaces

15 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 15 Interface Errors l Interface misuse A calling component calls another component and makes an error in its use of its interface »e.g. parameters in the wrong order l Interface misunderstanding A calling component embeds assumptions about the behaviour of the called component that are incorrect l Timing errors The called and the calling component operate at different speeds and out-of-date information is accessed

16 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 16 Interface testing guidelines l Design tests so that parameters to a called procedure are at the extreme ends of their ranges l Always test pointer parameters with null pointers l Design tests that cause the component to fail l Use stress testing in message passing systems l In shared memory systems, vary the order in which components are activated

17 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 17 Stress Testing l Exercises the system beyond its maximum design load Stressing the system often causes defects to come to light l Stressing the system tests its failure behavior Systems should not fail catastrophically Stress testing checks for unacceptable loss of service or data l Particularly relevant to distributed systems Severe degradation as a network becomes overloaded

18 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 18 l The components to be tested are object classes that are instantiated as objects l Larger grain than individual functions so approaches to white-box testing have to be extended l No obvious top to the system for top-down integration and testing l Testing levels Testing operations associated with objects Testing object classes Testing clusters of cooperating objects Testing the complete OO system Object-Oriented Testing

19 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 19 Object Class Testing l Complete test coverage of a class involves Testing all operations associated with an object Setting and getting all object attributes Exercising the object in all possible states l Inheritance makes it more difficult to design object class tests The information to be tested is not localised l Class testing is complemented by scenario-based testing Identify scenarios from use-cases Supplement these with interaction diagrams that show the objects involved in the scenario

20 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 20 A Testing Workbench

21 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 21 Key points l Test parts of a system which are commonly used rather than those which are rarely executed l Equivalence partitions are sets of test cases where the program should behave in an equivalent way l Black-box testing is based on the system specification l White-box testing is based on the system implementation

22 ©Ian Sommerville 2000 Software Engineering, 6th edition. Chapter 20 Slide 22 Key points l Test coverage measures ensure that desired aspects of the systems implementation have been executed at least once l Interface defects arise because of specification misreading, misunderstanding, errors or invalid timing assumptions l To test object classes, test all operations, attributes and states


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