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Book 2 Unit 7 Space Travel Text A The Hazards of Space Travel Quit.

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1 Book 2 Unit 7 Space Travel Text A The Hazards of Space Travel Quit

2 Contents 1 2 3 4 5 Background Information & Cultural Notes Lead-in Text Structures Sentence Study Text A Quit Words & Phrases Key to Exercises 6

3 International Space Station (ISS) Zero gravity A supernova explosion Cosmic rays Background Information & Cultural Notes Home Columbia Space Shuttle

4 International Space Station (ISS) 国际空间站 Led by the US, the ISS draws upon the scientific and technological resources of 16 nations: Canada, Japan, Russia, 11 nations of the European Space Agency and Brazil. Orbit construction of the station began in 1998 and is scheduled for completion by later 2011. The ISS is by far the largest artificial satellite that has ever orbited Earth. It serves as a research laboratory that has a microgravity environment in which crews conduct experiments in biology, chemistry, medicine, physiology and physics, as well as astronomical and meteorological observations. Background Information & Cultural Notes Back Home

5 International Space Station (ISS) 正在建造中的一个国际大项目,由美国、俄罗斯、日本、加拿大以及多 个欧洲国家等参加,耗资将达数百亿美元。它由 36 个组件组成,总重量 为 470 吨,体积为 1200 立方米,长 88 米,太阳能电池幅长 110 米,供电系 统的功率超过 50 千瓦,它将保证由 7 名宇航员组成的乘员组在 40 万米高度 的轨道上长期飞行和工作。空间站可容纳 15 人同时进行科学考察,它的 使用寿命约为 15 年 Home Back

6 Cosmic rays 宇宙射线 : are high energy charged particles in our outer space that travel at nearly the speed of light. Most cosmic rays are the nuclei of atoms, ranging from the lightest to the heaviest elements in the periodic table. The term usually refers to the galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which originate in sources outside the solar system, distributed throughout our Milky Way galaxy. About 85 percent of the GCRs are protons (nuclei of hydrogen atoms), with approximately 12 percent consisting of alpha particles (helium nuclei). The remainders are electrons and nuclei of heavier atoms. Background Information & Cultural Notes Back Home nuclei : ['nju:kliai] 原子核( nucleus 的复数形式)

7 Cosmic rays 宇宙射线 Home Back

8 Background Information & Cultural Notes Back Home Zero gravity (0 g) 零重力,失重 : Zero gravity is the weightlessness--any condition equivalent to experiencing little or no acceleration or gravitational attraction, e.g., far from a planet, star, or other massive body. The human body is adapted to the gravitational field at the surface of the Earth, which is one gravity (1 g), and a weightless environment can have adverse effects on human health.

9 Background Information & Cultural Notes A supernova explosion 超新星爆炸 is an extremely energetic star explosion. Supernovae (pl) are extremely luminous and cause a burst of radiation that often briefly outshines an entire galaxy, before fading from view over several weeks or months. During this short interval a supernova can radiate as much as energy as the Sun is expected to emit over its entire life span. Back Home 明亮的

10 A supernova explosion Background Information & Cultural Notes Back Home

11 Background Information & Cultural Notes Columbia Space Shuttle 哥伦比亚航天飞机 was the first space shuttle in NASA’s (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) orbit fleet. Columbia was successfully launched on April 12, 1981 and returned on April 14, 1981, after orbiting the Earth 36 times. It completed 27 missions before being destroyed during re-entry on February1, 2003 near the end of its 28th mission. All seven crew members were killed. Home Back

12 Columbia Space Shuttle Home Back The crew

13 Lead-in Why do you think humans explore into outer space? Home Question 1

14 Lead-in Home Question 1 Question 1 Why do you think humans explore into outer space? PERHAPS there are three reasons for human beings to explore the outer space. Firstly, humans want to find larger space to live because of the population explosion. Secondly, humans need new resources to keep on survival because of their waste and destruction of the limited energy resources on the earth. Thirdly, human beings want to explore the outer space just because they want to see what the outer space looks like. S U R V I V A L D E V E L O P M E N T C U R I O S I T Y

15 Lead-in What dangers or risks do you know about humans’ exploration into outer space? Question 2 Home

16 Question 2 Question 2 Dangers or risks in outer space? The dangers or risks are so far not easy to tell clearly, but the greatest danger is to lose life; humans can’t return to the earth. Other risks may come from the unknown effects on human bodies, for example, the effects of zero gravity and cosmic rays. And the unpredictable living beings.

17 Lead-in Do you know zero gravity? What effects does it have on human health? Question 3 Home

18 Lead-in Home Question 3 Question 3 Zero gravity Zero gravity is the weightless condition. It may have effect on humans’ bone, muscles, and heart, and so on. The most common problem experienced by humans in the initial hours of weightlessness is known as space adaptation syndrome or SAS, commonly referred to as space sickness. Symptoms of SAS include nausea ([‘n ɔ :ziə] 恶心 ) and vomiting, vertigo ( 眩晕 ), headaches, lethargy ( 嗜睡 ), and overall malaise ( 不适 ). Astronauts on the International Space Station display an example of weightlessness. Michael Foale can be seen exercising in the foreground

19 Lead-in Home Question 3 Question 3 Zero gravity The most significant adverse effects of long-term weightlessness are muscle atrophy ( 肌肉萎缩 ) and deterioration of the skeleton, or spaceflight osteopenia ( 骨质减少 ). These effects can be minimized through a regimen ( 养生法 ) of exercise. Astronauts subject to long periods of weightlessness wear pants with elastic bands attached between waistband and cuffs to compress the leg bones and reduce osteopenia. Other significant effects include fluid redistribution (causing the “moon-face” appearance typical of pictures of astronauts in weightlessness), a slowing of the cardiovascular system, decreased production of red blood cells, balance disorders, and a weakening of the immune system.

20 Text Structure I. Introduction (Para.1) of exploration reasons and technological advances Home II. The dangers of human’s exploration into outer space (Para. 2-7) III. The two problems (Para. 8-9) IV. Conclusion (Para. 10-11) with three solutions

21 Text Structure I. Introduction (Para.1) This paragraph presents the three reasons for humans’ exploration into the outer space and the tremendous advances that humans have achieved in rocket and spaceship technologies during the past 50 years. The three reasons are: for new food sources or safe habitats; as a result of population pressures or environmental changes; human’s curiosity.

22 Text Structure II. The dangers of human’s exploration into outer space (Para. 2-7) (Para.2-4) present the effects of zero gravity (0g) on humans’ bodies, such as loss of bone mass ( 骨质 流失 ) and muscle deterioration ( 肌肉退化 ), and other problems in the cardiovascular system, such as orthostatic intolerance ( 直立耐受不良 ), cardiac arrhythmia and atrophy ( 心律失常和心肌萎缩 ).

23 Text Structure II. The dangers of human’s exploration into outer space (Para. 2-7) (Para.5-7) present the health dangers of radiation in space, that is the effects that the high-energy, ionizing cosmic ray (HZE) nuclei ( 高能宇宙射线核 子 ) have on biological material, for example, the cancer-inducing, and other potential harmful effects.

24 Text Structure III. The two problems (Para. 8-9) the shortage of funds because of NASA’s cuts in funding; and the shortage of the concerned information—the basic information about the hazards of space and travel will not be completed within the next 10-20 years.

25 Text Structure Home IV. Conclusion (Para. 10-11) with three solutions: — to use unmanned spacecraft; — to provide massively increased funding for the ISS; — to construct new lift-off capabilities and a much faster spacecraft. 垂直发射

26 Sentence Study The migration of expansive species depends on exploring their immediate or distant surroundings for new food sources or safe habitats; it can also come as a result of population pressures or environmental changes. The human species has added another reason for exploration, namely curiosity. (Line 1, Para.1) 1 Home migration: n. 迁移,移居,迁徙 seasonal migration 季节性迁移 the annual migration of birds 候鸟每 年的迁移 mass migrations 大规模的迁移 1. There has been a migration of people from the country to the towns. 人们从乡下移居城镇。 To Be Continued habitat: n. (动物的)栖息地,(植物的)产 地 1. I prefer to see animals in their natural habitat, rather than in zoos. 我喜欢看生活在自然栖息地的动物而非动物 园内的动物。 2. The panda’s natural habitat is the bamboo forest. 大熊猫的天然栖息地是竹林。

27 Sentence Study Paraphrase: The species whose size grows bigger and bigger would move to live in another place once they have explored the new surrounding for new food sources or safe living places. Such migration could be caused by expanding population or environmental changes. 1 物种的规模变得越来越大,由此带来的迁移要依赖于对 临近或遥远环境的探索,看看是否能找到新的食物来源 或安全的栖息地。这种迁移也可以看成是人口增长或是 环境变化的结果。而人类还增加了另外一个探索的原因, 即好奇心。 Home

28 Sentence Study Although they do not reach the Earth’s surface because they are either absorbed by the atmosphere or deflected by Earth’s magnetic field, there are already some experimental data on the cancer-inducing properties of electron, neutrons and protons in cosmic rays and other potential deleterious effects on biological material from numerous Earth-based experiments on laboratory animals. (Line 3, Para.5) 2 Home To Be Continued deleterious: adj. harmful to living things 有毒,有害的 deleterious gases 有毒气体; be deleterious on plants 对植物有害

29 Sentence Study Paraphrase: Although HZE nuclei do not reach the Earth’s surface because they are either absorbed by the atmosphere or redirected by the Earth’s magnetic field, Earth-based experiments on laboratory animals show cosmic rays can cause cancer and other harmful effects. 2 Home 尽管 HZE 核子无法到达地球表面,因为他们要么是被大气 层所吸收,要么是被地球磁场影响而发生偏转,但是已经 有实验数据表明宇宙射线中的电子,中子和质子有致癌作 用以及其它一些对机体有害的潜在影响。这些都已经在地 球上的许多实验室动物中得到观察。

30 Sentence Study The biological effects of HZE nuclei on cancer induction, the central nervous system, the immune system and the eyes are not well known, nor have the interaction of radiation effects at 0g been studied. (Line 3, Para.6) interaction: n. 互动,相互作用 the interaction between performers and their audience 演员和观众时间的互动 the interaction of bacteria with the body’s natural chemistry 细菌和身体的天然化学变化的相互作用 3 Home To Be Continued

31 Sentence Study Paraphrase: The humans do not know so well about the biological effects of HZE nuclei on cancer induction, the central nervous system, the immune system and the eyes; they have not studied the interaction of radiation effects at 0g, either. 3 Home HZE 核子对诱发癌症,中枢神经系统、免疫系统和眼睛的 生理影响还不明确,辐射影响与零重力之间的相互作用也 未做研究。

32 Sentence Study We also need a continuing, rotating crew of at least six astronauts to obtain epidemiologically significant data on the physiological and psychological effects of 0g on astronauts and the efficacy of countermeasures. (Line 3, Para.9) 4 Home To Be Continued epidemiology n. the scientific study of the spread and control of disease 流行病学; epidemiologically adv. 流行病学地; countermeasure n. 对策,反抗手段; countermeasures to neutralize the threat of terrorism 消除恐怖主义威胁的对策

33 Sentence Study 4 为了获取流行病学的有效数据,我们同时还需要 至少六名宇航员轮翻上阵,持续不断地试验,来 获取零重力对宇航员生理和心理影响的数据并验 证对策的有效性。 Home Paraphrase: we also need at least six astronauts to take turns to work continuously to get medically reliable data on the bodily and mental effect of 0g on astronauts and the usefulness of the actions taken to overcome the effects.

34 1.inquisitive 2.abyss 3.mitigate 4.deterioration 5.deflect 6.hazardous 7.exacerbate 8.efficacy 9.eclipse 10.envisage New Words Expressions New Words & Expressions Home 11. exert effect on 12. lift-off

35 inquisitive [in'kwizətiv] adj. (1) (disapproving ) asking too many questions and trying to find out about what other people are doing, etc. 过分好奇,爱打听 ; (2) very interested in learning about many different things 好奇的,好问的, 爱钻研的 New Words 1. inquisitive Back Para 1, Line 6 1. 别这么追根问底的。这与你无关! Don’t be so inquisitive. It’s none of your business! 2. 他过分好奇的本性不止一次给自己招来麻烦。 His inquisitive nature got him into trouble more than once. 3. 儿童一般都好奇爱问。 Children are usually inquisitive.

36 New Words 2. abyss abyss /’æbis/ n . [literally or figuratively] a very deep wide space or hole that seems to have no bottom 深渊 Back Para. 1, Line 8 e.g. the abysses of sky and sea 海天深处 ; an abyss of ignorance/loneliness 无知到极点 / 无尽的孤寂; the abyss of time 时光绵绵 ; 1. He was plunged into an abyss of despair. 他栽进了绝望的深渊。 2. The country is stepping back from the edge of abyss. 该国临渊而退。

37 mitigate v. to make sth. less harmful, serious, etc. 减轻、缓和;使缓和,使温和 e.g. action to mitigate poverty 减轻贫穷的行动; mitigate a punishment 减轻处罚; mitigate anger 平息怒气; mitigate possible dangers 使潜在的危险缓和下来; New Words 3. mitigate 1. 植树造林减轻了土壤侵蚀。 Soil erosion was mitigated by the planting of trees. 2. 阵阵凉风降低了白天的高温。 Cool breezes mitigated the heat of the day. Back Para. 3, Line 3

38 deterioration n. the process of changing to an inferior state 恶化,变坏;退化;堕落 New Words 4. deterioration e.g. a serious deterioration in relations between the two countries 两国关系的严重恶化 ; a sudden deterioration in the weather 天气突 然变坏; mental deterioration 精神衰颓; 1. 他为骨质疏松老化所苦,因而拄着手杖走路。 He had trouble with bone deterioration and walked with a cane. Back Para. 4, Line 13

39 deflect [di'flekt] n. (1) to change direction or make sth. change direction, especially after hitting sth. (尤指击中某 物后)使偏斜 / 转向;转移,引 开; New Words 5. deflect 1. 球被弹到附近的柱子上。 The ball was deflected to the near post. 2. 球打在里德身上反弹进球门。 The ball deflected off Reid’s body into the goal. Back (2) to succeed in preventing sth. from being directed towards you 挡住 1. 他举起手臂试图挡开这一击。 He raised his arm to try to deflect the blow. Para. 5, Line 4 (3) to prevent sb from doing sth that they are determined to do 阻止某人做(已决定做的事) 1. 他绝不让别人改变它的目的。 He never lets himself be deflected from his purpose.

40 hazardous ['hæzədəs] adj. involving risk or danger, especially to sb’s health or safety 危险的,有害的 e.g. hazardous waste/chemicals 有害废物 / 化学制品 ; a list of products that are potentially hazardous to health 对健康有潜在危害的产品清单; a hazardous journey 危险的旅程 ; 1. 投资这么多会有风险的。 It would be hazardous to invest so much. New Words 6. hazardous Back Para. 7, Line 5

41 exacerbate [ek'sæsəbeit, i ɡ z-] v. to make sth. worse, especially a disease or problem 使加深,使恶化,使加剧,使加重 e.g. exacerbate one’s misery 加深自己的不幸; New Words 7. exacerbate 1. 由于炎热她的病恶化了。 Her illness was exacerbated by the heat. 2. 他挑衅性的反应只能使情况更糟。 His aggressive reaction only exacerbated the situation. Back 3. 预料的坏收成将加剧社会紧张局势。 An anticipated bad harvest will exacerbate social tensions. 4. 这些症状可能会因为某些药物而加重。 The symptoms may be exacerbated by certain drugs. Para. 8, Line 12

42 efficacy [‘efikəsi] n. the ability of sth., especially a drug or medical treatment, to produce the results that are wanted 功效,效力,效验 e.g. the efficacy of the new policy 新政策的效力; New Words 8. efficacy 1. 阿司匹林治头痛的功效是众所周知的。 The efficacy of aspirin in relieving headaches is well known. 2. 该署不断检讨防治虫鼠的方法,务求提高工作成效。 The methodology used in pest control is continuously reviewed to enhance effectiveness and efficacy. Back Para. 9, Line 5

43 eclipse [i'klips] (1) n. An eclipse of the sun is an occasion when the moon is between the earth and the sun, so that for a short time you cannot see part or all of the sun. An eclipse of the moon is an occasion when the earth is between the sun and the moon, so that for a short time you cannot see part or all of the moon. ( 日、月 ) 食 New Words 9. eclipse e.g. an eclipse of the sun/moon 日蚀 / 月蚀; a total/partial eclipse 全蚀 / 偏蚀; 1. 下一次的月蚀将发生在 2008 年 2 月 21 日,到时美国,欧洲和亚洲 的人们都将能看到这一天文现象。 The next total lunar eclipse occurs Feb. 21, 2008, and will be visible from the Americas, Europe and Asia. Back Para. 11, Line 6 To Be Continued

44 New Words 9. eclipse Back Para. 11, Line 6 (2) v. 1) 日蚀,月蚀;遮掩(天体的)光; 使暗淡 / 失色; 1. 月球遮住太阳。 The moon eclipses the sun. 2. 月亮被遮住一半。 The moon is partly eclipsed. 3. 这个可怕的消息很快就赶走了我们的 快乐。 Our happiness was soon eclipsed by the terrible news. 2) exceed in importance; to do or be much better than, outweigh 掩没 …… 的 重要性(或地位、声誉等) 1. 这件事掩盖了一条重要的真理。 This eclipses a vital truth. 2. 她妹妹更聪明、漂亮、讨人喜欢,一 下子就把她比下去了。 She is quite eclipsed by her sister, who is cleverer, prettier and more amusing.

45 envisage v. to imagine what will happen in the future 想象,设想,展望 New Words 10. envisage 1. 你预计会有什么样的利润水平? What level of profit do you envisage? 2. 你估计什么时候能够还钱给我 ? When do you envisage being able to pay me back? 3. 我无法想象她如何应付这个工作。 I can’t envisage her coping with this job. 4. 我们没有设想到局面会变得这么糟。 We had not envisaged that the situation would get so bad. Back Para. 11, Line 13

46 exert: V. perform, practice (an action or operation) 运用,行使,发挥,施加 Expressions 11. exert effect on 1.exert control over sb. 对某人加以控制 2. exert powerful force against gambling 使用强大的力量反对赌博 3. He has been exerting a lot of pressure on me to change my mind. 他一直在施加种种压力要我改变主意。 Back Para. 5, Line 2

47 exert effect on 对 …… 施加影响(或作用) Expressions 11. exert effect on 1. The cement works may exert effects on the environment. 水泥厂会对环境有影响。 2. The TV violence has exerted effects on kids. 电视暴力节目对少年儿童产生影响。 3. The HZE (high-energy, ionizing cosmic ray) nuclei in cosmic rays exert effect on atoms or molecules. 宇宙射线中的 HZE 核子对原子或分子施加电离作用。 Back Para. 5, Line 2

48 lift off: V. [of a rocket, less frequently an aircraft] to leave the ground and rise into the air (火箭)发射,离地升空 Expressions 12. lift-off Back Para. 11, last but the 7th line lift-off or liftoff (also blast-off): N. the start of the flight of a space vehicle or the time for that (航天器的)起飞,发射,离地升空 ; 离地时刻 1. Liftoff is set for 8:30. 发射时刻定于 8 时 30 分。 2. ten minutes to lift-off 离发射还有十分钟 3. Lift-off capabilities 发射能力

49 Key to Exercises 1. Reading Comprehension a. Choose the sentences that best express the meaning of the statement from the text. (1)B (2)A (3)C (4)B (5)A Home

50 Key to Exercises (1) the result of population pressures or environmental changes; curiosity (2) the considerations of national security (3) bone and muscle physiology and the cardiovascular system (4) the cuts in funding by NASA; the loss of the Columbia space shuttle in February 2003 (5) to use unmanned spacecraft to investigate the planets’ surface and land; to provide large funding for the ISS; to construct new lift-off capabilities and faster spacecraft. b. Fill in the blanks with the information you have learned in the text. Home

51 Key to Exercises 2.Vocabulary a.Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the words or phrases you have learned in the text. (1)habitat (2) interplanetary (3) eclipsed (4)cosmic (5) countermeasure (6) simulate (7)cardiovascular (8) efficacy (9) harbour (10) sterilize Home

52 Key to Exercises 2.Vocabulary (1) A (2) C (3) B (4) A (5) B (6) C (7) D (8) A (9) D (10) A b. Choose the word or phrase that is closest in meaning to the underlined one. Home

53 Key to Exercises 3. Cloze choose an appropriate word from the following list to fill in each of the following blanks. Each word can be used only once. Change the form where necessary. (1)weakens (2) more (3) minimize (4) women (5) lasted (6) measured (7) between (8) following (9) never (10) comparing (11) determine (12) found (13) after (14) in (15) faster (16) burden (17) on (18) as (19) than (20) astronauts Home

54 Key to Exercises 4. Translation a. Chinese to English: Translate the following sentences into English. (2) After a period of international tension, the two countries are now trying to normalize relations with each other. (1) China’s forestry construction still faces serious problems such as the shortage, low quality and uneven distribution of forest resources and the continuous deterioration of the ecological environment. Home To Be Continued

55 Key to Exercises 4. Translation a. Chinese to English: Translate the following sentences into English. (3) A computer can assess in seconds all the combinations of about 10 to 15 moves ahead, but a top champion chess player, given time, may be able to intuitively envisage up to 20 moves or more. Home (4) Native trees only need low maintenance; they have developed natural defenses against insects and disease over the centuries, and they rarely need pruning or feeding. To Be Continued

56 Key to Exercises 4. Translation a. Chinese to English Translate the following sentences into English. (6) It is generally recognized that in a rapidly changing world, the role of the school is not only to impart knowledge. What is more important is to develop in our young people an inquisitive mind, communication skills, the quest for knowledge and the skills for mastering new information and learning how to learn. (5) New England is bordered on the south and east by the Atlantic Ocean, which ought--one would suppose—to exert the modifying effect on climate. Home To Be Continued

57 Key to Exercises 4. Translation a. Chinese to English Translate the following sentences into English. (7) His love had brought her many beautiful dreams, but now it was casting her into a dark abyss. Home (8) We will raise the environmental awareness of the whole society and encourage the public to consciously opt for green consumption and actively join in activities aimed at improving the ecological environment, in an effort to drastically improve the environmental quality of the capital and build it into an ecological city.

58 Key to Exercises 4. Translation a. Chinese to English Translate the following paragraph into English. During weightlessness, the forces within the body undergo dramatic change. Because the spine is no longer compressed, people grow taller (two inches or so). The lungs, heart, and other organs within the chest have no weight, and as a result, the rib cage and chest relax and expand. Similarly, the weight of the liver, kidneys, stomach, and bowels disappears; meanwhile muscles and bones come to be used in different ways. Home To Be Continued

59 Key to Exercises 4. Translation a. Chinese to English Translate the following paragraph into English. Our muscles are designed to support us when standing or sitting upright and to move body parts. But in space, muscles used for support on the ground are no longer needed for that purpose; moreover, the muscles used for movement around a capsule differ from those used for walking on the earth. Consequently, some muscles rapidly weaken. Home

60 Key to Exercises 4. Translation b. English to Chinese Translate the following paragraph into Chinese. 探索是进化中的一个重要生存战略。不断扩张的物种的迁徙 依赖于对它们近处或远处环境的探索来寻求新的食物来源或 安全的居住地。探索也可能由种群数量的压力或环境的改变 造成。人类给探索还添加了另外一个理由,即好奇心。这种 对未知事物探索的精神需求带领着伟大的欧洲探险者们在十 五到十七世纪登上了美洲、澳大利亚和南极。对自然的好奇 心同样也是人类探索极地冰冠、攀越险峰和潜入海底深处的 驱动力。现在,二十一世纪的最终探索前沿就是太空。 Home

61 Key to Exercises 4. Translation b. English to Chinese Read the passage carefully and translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. ( 1 )研究显示,宇航员在太空期间每月以 1% 的速率从尾椎 骨、髋骨和大腿骨失去钙质。一些部位,如脚后跟比其它部 位损失钙要快。 ( 2 )科学家知道造成骨质疏松症的因素很多,但他们尚未弄 清这些因素是如何起作用,又是如何相互作用的,因而很难 研制出一种合适的治疗方案。 Home To Be Continued

62 Key to Exercises 4. Translation b. English to Chinese Read the passage carefully and translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. ( 3 )睡觉前,通过太空船窗户向外看一眼(考虑到窗外的 特殊景致,这种举动一般难以抑制)会使足够多的亮光进入 眼睛,引起大脑的错误反应,从而导致睡眠质量的下降。 ( 4 )对于长时间的太空飞行,宇航员必须要面对这样的情 况:长期禁闭在密封舱里、不能逃逸、不能享受地球上的正 常生活、和小组里来自不同文化的同事一道生活。 ( 5 )宇航员在低地轨道待一年所受到的辐射剂量是在地面 上受到平均辐射剂量的十倍。 Home

63 Key to Exercises 5. Writing Urgent to Improve Moral Standards Direction: 目前,社会道德水准正日趋下降。 其原因何在? 我们应该怎么办? Write an essay in English with 150 word at least under the title below. SAMPLE Home

64 Key to Exercises It is often reported that somebody made unqualified wine with industrial alcohol. The result was that many people suffer from blindness. You may have heard that a group of young students returning home by train were robbed and bruised by several rogues. They asked the train policeman to help them, but received no answer. All of these reflect that social moral standards are sinking day by day. This makes many people begin to miss the old-good days of the 1950s when the social moral standards were much better. The reasons for these phenomena are varied. After 30 years of being opened to the outside world, the Chinese have become more materialistic than they used to be. Money seems to be the dearest. To obtain more money, many people take advantage of the government’s operation trying every means to pursue money. Another possible reason is that our society pays much more attention to material civilization while cultural civilization is more or less neglected. People are no longer concerned with self-cultivation. SAMPLE 1 Home To Be Continued

65 Key to Exercises It is time for us to deal with this situation. Several steps must be taken. First, government must set up strict management system. All those who make shams must be punished. Secondly, the society should advocate the sense of citizenship. A person will never live in a vacuum, so he must contact with others. Individuals’ self-cultivation is the base of the whole society’s moral standards. The last, also the most important, the ideological civilization should be strengthened. With these, our society will become better and the moral standards are expected to be promoted. SAMPLE 1 Home

66 Text B In Memoriam: The Mars lander’s legacy Key to the Exercises a.Fill in the blanks with the words or phrases given below. Change the form where necessary. (1) memoriam (2) legacy (3) confirmation (4) dwindling (5) plummet (6) scrape (7) excavate (8) panorama (9) gravitational (10) demise

67 b. Complete the sentences with the information given in the text. (1) phoenix’s confirmation of water ice; the characterization of the Martian dirt (2) digging up samples of Martian dirt and subsurface water ice and analyzing them (3) dwindling sunlight and light-obscuring dust in the atmosphere (4) the poor weather at its landing site (5) the confirmation of water ice under the surface of the Martian arctic (6) volcanic activity; there is liquid water around (7) it can act as a potential energy source for microbe (8) complete 360-degree panoramas; close-up peeks at the ice in trenches it dug (9) to examine the upper and middle atmosphere to understand how materials escape from the planet’s gravitational pull (10) they would get stuck in openings and to the robotic arm’s scoop Text B In Memoriam: The Mars lander’s legacy

68 c. Decide whether the statement is TURE or FALSE according to the text. (1)F (2) F (3) T (4) F (5) T (6) T (7) F (8) F (9) T (10) F Text B In Memoriam: The Mars lander’s legacy

69 THANK YOU! Quit

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