Constitutional Courts Formed under Article III: 1. 94 District Courts 2. 12 U.S. Court of Appeals 3. U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit 4. U.S. Court of International Trade They serve for life.
Special Courts AKA the legislative courts: created by the expressed powers granted Congress in Article I narrower range of cases than Constitutional Courts
Six Special Courts 1. U.S. Court of Federal Claims 2. Territorial Courts 3. Courts of the District of Columbia 4. U.S. Tax Court 5. U.S. Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces 6. U.S. Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims
Jurisdiction Definition: the authority of a court of hear (to try and to decide ) a case
Exclusive Jurisdiction Cases that may be heard only in federal courts: ambassadors federal crime patent or copyright infringement and others
Concurrent Jurisdiction Cases that my be tried in either a state or federal court: diverse citizenship = disputes involving citizens of different states with money totaling over $75,000
Original and Appellate Jurisdiction A court in which a case is first heard has original jurisdiction. A court that hears a case on appeals has appellate jurisdiction. The Supreme Court has both.
Terms " The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behavior... " serve for life in the constitutional courts only removed by the impeachment process other non-constitutional courts serve for a certain number of years
Compensation " shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office." Congress sets the pay
Court Officers Federal Judges Primary Mission = hear and decide cases Therefore, they have numerous "assistants" who make it possible for them to concentrate on the cases.
The District Courts 677 judges hear 300,000 cases a year = 80% of the federal case load
Federal Judicial Districts 89 federal judicial districts covering all of the US and its territories
District Court Jurisdiction criminal case = a defendant is tried for committing some action that Congress has declared by law to be a federal crime civil case = involves some noncriminal matter (taxes, postal, civil rights, etc.)
The Court of Appeals Created to lighten the burden of the Supreme Court, these courts hear the majority of appeals.
Appellate Court Jurisdiction They hear only appeals. Their decisions are final unless the Supreme Court decides to hear their case.
Court of International Trade Hear civil cases about tariff and trade-related laws.
The Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit nationwide jurisdiction created specifically to speed up and centralize certain types of civil cases might hear cases about trademarks, patents or copyright
Supreme Court Justices You may organize your own group of two or three people. First come, first served on justice selection. There are nine, so there can only be nine groups. You are creating a PPT presentation that includes the following information. Biography – family, education, experience Appointment – which president and what influences Decisions – pick two significant cases and explain your justice’s position Please include pictures and any other significant details about your justice we would find interesting and should know.
US Supreme Court John Roberts Antonin Scalia Anthony Kennedy Clarence Thomas Ruth Bader Ginsburg Stephen Breyer Samuel Alito Sonia Sotomayor Elena Kagen