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SECTION1 The Federal Court System 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the.

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Presentation on theme: "SECTION1 The Federal Court System 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the."— Presentation transcript:

1 SECTION1 The Federal Court System 12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and responsibilities of the three branches of government as established by the U.S. Constitution..5 Discuss Article III of the Constitution as it relates to judicial power, including the length of terms of judges and the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court..6 Explain the processes of selection and confirmation of Supreme Court justices.

2 SECTION2 Objective: Discuss Article III of the Constitution as it relates to judicial power, including the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. Pair Share Pair Share What is the highest court in the land? What is the highest court in the land? What does jurisdiction mean? What does jurisdiction mean? What article in the Constitution sets up the judicial branch? What article in the Constitution sets up the judicial branch? How many Supreme Court justices are there? How many Supreme Court justices are there? What is a term for a Supreme Court justice? What is a term for a Supreme Court justice? Who nominates justices and who confirms them? Who nominates justices and who confirms them?

3 SECTION3 Creation of a National Judiciary The Framers created the national judiciary in Article III of the Constitution. The Framers created the national judiciary in Article III of the Constitution. There are two court systems in the United States: the national judiciary that spans the country, and the courts run by each of the 50 States. There are two court systems in the United States: the national judiciary that spans the country, and the courts run by each of the 50 States. The Constitution created the Supreme Court and left Congress to establish the inferior courts—the lower federal courts. There are two types of federal courts: (1) constitutional courts and (2) special courts. The Constitution created the Supreme Court and left Congress to establish the inferior courts—the lower federal courts. There are two types of federal courts: (1) constitutional courts and (2) special courts.

4 SECTION4 Types of Federal Courts The Constitution created only the Supreme Court, giving Congress the power to create any lower, or “inferior,” courts as needed. The Constitution created only the Supreme Court, giving Congress the power to create any lower, or “inferior,” courts as needed.

5 SECTION5 Federal Court Jurisdiction Jurisdiction is defined as the authority of a court to hear (to try and to decide) a case. Jurisdiction is defined as the authority of a court to hear (to try and to decide) a case. Article III, Section 2 of the Constitution provides that the federal courts may hear a case because either: Article III, Section 2 of the Constitution provides that the federal courts may hear a case because either: (1) the subject matter (what is the case about?) (1) the subject matter (what is the case about?) Application or interpretation of any Federal Law and the Constitution Application or interpretation of any Federal Law and the Constitution Matters pertaining to the sea Matters pertaining to the sea (2) the parties involved in the case. (2) the parties involved in the case. United States official or agency United States official or agency Foreign officials Foreign officials State vs. State, or citizens from different States State vs. State, or citizens from different States American citizen suing a foreign government/official American citizen suing a foreign government/official Citizen of one state Citizen of one state

6 SECTION6 Types of Jurisdiction Exclusive and Concurrent Jurisdiction Exclusive and Concurrent Jurisdiction Some cases can only be heard in federal courts. In that case, federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. (Federal crimes, patents, foreign officials ) Some cases can only be heard in federal courts. In that case, federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. (Federal crimes, patents, foreign officials ) Many cases may be tried in a federal court or a State court. In such an instance, the federal and State courts have concurrent jurisdiction. Many cases may be tried in a federal court or a State court. In such an instance, the federal and State courts have concurrent jurisdiction. Original and Appellate Jurisdiction A court in which a case is first heard is said to have original jurisdiction over that case. A court that hears a case on appeal from a lower court has appellate jurisdiction over that case. The Supreme Court exercises both original and appellate jurisdiction.

7 SECTION7 Appointment of Judges The power to appoint judges to federal courts falls on the President. The power to appoint judges to federal courts falls on the President. The President nominates Supreme Court justices, as well as federal court judges, who are then subject to the approval of the Senate. The President nominates Supreme Court justices, as well as federal court judges, who are then subject to the approval of the Senate. Most federal judges are drawn from the ranks of leading attorneys, legal scholars and law school professors, former members of Congress, and State courts. Most federal judges are drawn from the ranks of leading attorneys, legal scholars and law school professors, former members of Congress, and State courts.

8 SECTION8 The Federal Court System

9 SECTION9 Terms and Pay of Judges Judges appointed to the constitutional courts, including the Supreme Court, are appointed for life. Judges appointed to the constitutional courts, including the Supreme Court, are appointed for life. Judges of constitutional courts may only be removed by their own will or through impeachment. Only 13 federal judges have ever been impeached, and of them, seven were convicted. Judges of constitutional courts may only be removed by their own will or through impeachment. Only 13 federal judges have ever been impeached, and of them, seven were convicted. Judges who sit in the special courts are appointed for terms varying from 4 to 15 years. Judges who sit in the special courts are appointed for terms varying from 4 to 15 years. Congress determines salaries for federal judges. (current salary of Supreme Court justices = $208,000) Congress determines salaries for federal judges. (current salary of Supreme Court justices = $208,000)

10 SECTION10 Activity: You Be the Judge

11 SECTION11 Objective: Discuss Article III of the Constitution as it relates to judicial power, including the courts of appeal. Pair Share: There is no liberty, if the power of judging be not separated from the legislative and executive powers. What do you think this quote means? Pair Share: There is no liberty, if the power of judging be not separated from the legislative and executive powers. What do you think this quote means?

12 SECTION12 The District Courts Federal Judicial Districts The 94 federal judicial districts include at least one district in each State, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The 94 federal judicial districts include at least one district in each State, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Larger and more populous States are divided into two or more districts, reflecting the larger amount of judicial work done there. Larger and more populous States are divided into two or more districts, reflecting the larger amount of judicial work done there. District Court Jurisdiction District courts have original jurisdiction over most cases that are heard in federal courts. The district courts hear a wide range of criminal cases and civil cases. A criminal case, in the federal courts, is one in which a defendant is tried for committing some action that Congress declared by law to be a federal crime. A federal civil case is one which involves non-criminal matters.

13 SECTION13 The Courts of Appeals Appellate Court Judges Altogether, 179 circuit judges sit in the 12 appeals courts. Altogether, 179 circuit judges sit in the 12 appeals courts. A Supreme Court justice is also assigned to each of the circuits. A Supreme Court justice is also assigned to each of the circuits. Appellate Court Jurisdiction The courts of appeals only have appellate jurisdiction, hearing cases on appeal from lower federal courts. The courts of appeals were created in 1891 to handle much of the burden that the Supreme Court faced in ruling on appealed cases.

14 SECTION14 How Federal Cases Are Appealed

15 SECTION15 Read aloud: Let’s Take This Baby Up! Read aloud: Let’s Take This Baby Up! Pairs: complete worksheet: Appellate Courts: Define! Pairs: complete worksheet: Appellate Courts: Define!

16 SECTION16Pair-Share 1. Describe the people, words and objects you see in the cartoon. 2. Describe the action taking place. 3. What is the cartoonist’s opinion on this issue? 4. What special interest groups would agree or disagree with the cartoon.

17 SECTION17 Supreme Court Jurisdiction The Supreme Court has both original and appellate jurisdiction. The Supreme Court has both original and appellate jurisdiction. The Court has original jurisdiction over cases involving two or more States and all cases brought against ambassadors or other public ministers. The Court has original jurisdiction over cases involving two or more States and all cases brought against ambassadors or other public ministers. Most cases heard by the Court are appeals cases. The Court hears only one to two cases in which it has original jurisdiction per year. Most cases heard by the Court are appeals cases. The Court hears only one to two cases in which it has original jurisdiction per year.

18 SECTION18 How Cases Reach the Supreme Court For a case to be heard by the Court, four of nine judges must agree that it should be placed on the Court’s docket. Writ of Certiorari Most cases reach the Court via writ of certiorari, an order to a lower court to send a record in a given case for its review. Most cases reach the Court via writ of certiorari, an order to a lower court to send a record in a given case for its review. Certificate Cases can reach the Court by certificate when a lower court asks for the Court to certify the answer to a specific question in the matter. Cases can reach the Court by certificate when a lower court asks for the Court to certify the answer to a specific question in the matter.

19 SECTION19 Appealing a Case to the Supreme Court Chapter 18, Section

20 SECTION20 How the Supreme Court Operates Oral Arguments Once the Supreme Court accepts a case, it sets a date on which lawyers on both sides will present oral arguments. Once the Supreme Court accepts a case, it sets a date on which lawyers on both sides will present oral arguments.Briefs Briefs are written documents filed with the Court before oral arguments begin. Briefs are written documents filed with the Court before oral arguments begin. The Court in Conference The Chief Justice presides over a closed-door conference in which justices present their views on the case at hand. The Chief Justice presides over a closed-door conference in which justices present their views on the case at hand.

21 SECTION21 Judicial Philosophies judicial restraint judicial restraint Judges should always try to decide cases on the basis of (1) original intent of those who wrote the constitution or enacted the statute and (2) precedent – in line with previous decisions in similar cases. (Rehnquist Court) judicial activism Judges should act more boldly. The law should be interpreted and applied in the light of ongoing changes in conditions and values (Warren Court)

22 SECTION22 Opinions of the Court Once the Court finishes its conference, it reaches a decision and its opinion is written.

23 SECTION23 The Current Supreme Court John Roberts Antonin Scalia Sonia Sotomayor Anthony Kennedy David Souter Clarence Thomas Ruth Bader Ginsberg Stephen BreyerSamuel Alito

24 SECTION24

25 SECTION25 The Supreme Court

26 SECTION26 1. Describe the people, words and objects you see in the cartoon. 2. Describe the action taking place. 3. What is the cartoonist’s opinion on this issue? 4. What special interest groups would agree or disagree with the cartoon.

27 SECTION27 1. Describe the people, words and objects you see in the cartoon. 2. Describe the action taking place. 3. What is the cartoonist’s opinion on this issue? 4. What special interest groups would agree or disagree with the cartoon.

28 SECTION28 1. Describe the people, words and objects you see in the cartoon. 2. Describe the action taking place. 3. What is the cartoonist’s opinion on this issue? 4. What special interest groups would agree or disagree with the cartoon.

29 SECTION29 1. Describe the people, words and objects you see in the cartoon. 2. Describe the action taking place. 3. What is the cartoonist’s opinion on this issue? 4. What special interest groups would agree or disagree with the cartoon.

30 SECTION30 Objective: Discuss Article III of the Constitution as it relates to judicial power, including the power of Judicial Review. Objective: Discuss Article III of the Constitution as it relates to judicial power, including the power of Judicial Review. Read and highlight: Judicial Review Read and highlight: Judicial Review Be prepared to discuss the questions Be prepared to discuss the questions

31 SECTION31 Judicial Review Judicial review refers to the power of a court to determine the constitutionality of a government action. Judicial review refers to the power of a court to determine the constitutionality of a government action. The Supreme Court first asserted its power of judicial review in the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803). The Supreme Court first asserted its power of judicial review in the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803).

32 SECTION32 Objective: Discuss Article III of the Constitution as it relates to judicial power, including the power of Judicial Review. Please take out worksheet: Please take out worksheet: “Gambling and Judicial Review” “Gambling and Judicial Review”


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