2 Section 1: The National Judiciary The Framers created the national judiciary in Article III of the Constitution.There are two court systems in the United States calledDual Court System:National Judiciary (Federal Courts): spans the whole countryState Courts: run by each of the 50 states individuallyThe Constitution created the Supreme Court and left Congress to establish the inferior courts—the lower federal courts made up of:Constitutional courts – Federal Courts congress createdSpecial courts.
3 Organized by the constitution Organized by Congress
4 Federal Court Jurisdiction Jurisdiction is defined as the authority of a court to hear (to try and to decide) a case.Article III, Section 2 of the Constitution provides that the federal courts may hear a case because of either:the subject matter- i.e. Federal courts only hear “federal questions” like interpreting the Constitution or admiralty law [high seas]the parties involved in the case.U.S. officer, U.S. agenciesambassador, consul, representative of the governmentstate suing a state, a resident of one state, or foreign governmentcitizen suing a citizen of another stateAmerican citizen suing another countryCitizen of a state sues citizen of same state where both claim title of land under grants from differnet states
5 Appointment of JudgesThe power to appoint judges to federal courts falls on the President.The President nominates Supreme Court justices, as well as federal court judges, who are then subject to the approval of the Senate.Most federal judges are drawn from the ranks of leading attorneys, legal scholars and law school professors, former members of Congress, and State court judges.
6 Terms and PayJudges appointed to the constitutional courts, including the Supreme Court, are appointed for life.Judges of constitutional courts may be removed only by their own will or through impeachment. In 180 years, only 13 federal judges have ever been impeached, and, of them, seven were convicted.Judges who sit in the special courts are appointed for terms varying from 4 to 15 years.Congress determines salaries for federal judgesRetire at age 70: if they served at least 10 years, they receive full salary for the rest of their livesRetire at age 65: if they have served at least 15 years, they receive full salary for the rest of their lives
8 Section 2:The Inferior Courts District Courts:The 94 federal judicial districts include at least one district in each State, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.District courts have original jurisdiction over most cases that are heard in federal courts.667 judges total, hear about 300,000 cases a yearHear:Criminal cases: defendant is tried for committing some action that Congress has declared by law to be a federal crimeCivil cases: noncriminal matter [i.e. terms of a contrast, property damage]
9 Courts of AppealsThe courts of appeals were created in 1891 to handle much of the burden that the Supreme Court faced in ruling on appealed cases.U.S. map: divided into 12 judicial circuits ….with one court of appeal for each and they hear appealed cases from the various district courts within their circuit---The 13th is the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit located in the District of Columbia and deals mostly with appeals for patent, copyright, and international trade cases--- Total of 13 courts of appeals in the judiciary
12 Section 3: The Supreme Court Judicial Review:Judicial review refers to the power of a court to determine the constitutionality of a government action.The Supreme Court first asserted its power of judicial review in the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803).The Court’s decision laid the foundation for its involvement in the development of the American system of government.
13 Supreme CourtMost cases heard by the Court are appeals cases. The Court hears only one to two cases in which it has original jurisdiction per year.
14 Supreme CourtMore than 8,000 cases are now appealed to the Supreme court each term… it only accepts a few hundred for decision… For a case to be heard by the Court, four of nine judges must agree that it should be placed on the Court’s docket…called “rule of four”
16 How the Court Operates #1 Oral Arguments Once the Supreme Court accepts a case, it sets a date on which lawyers on both sides will present oral arguments.#2 BriefsBriefs are written documents filed with the Court before oral arguments begin.#3 The Court in ConferenceThe Chief Justice presides over a closed-door conference in which justices present their views on the case at hand.
17 Opinions of the Court #1 Majority Opinion #2 Precedents The majority opinion, formally called the Opinion of the Court, announces the Court’s decision in a case and its reasoning on which it is based.#2 PrecedentsThe majority opinions stand as precedents, or examples to be followed in similar cases as they arise in the lower courts or reach the Supreme Court.#3 Concurring OpinionsConcurring opinions are sometimes authored by justices to add or emphasize a point that was not made in the majority opinion.#4 Dissenting OpinionsDissenting opinions are often written by those justices who do not agree with the Court's majority opinion
18 Section 4: The Special Courts #1 The Court of Federal ClaimsThe U.S. Court of Federal Claims handles all pleas against acts of the United States government.#2 The Territorial CourtsUnder its power to govern the territories of the United States, Congress created courts for the nation’s territories.
19 Special Courts The District of Columbia Courts The District of Columbia Courts handle all local judicial matters for the district, including trials and appeals.The United States Tax CourtThe Tax Court hears civil but not criminal cases involving disputes over the application of the tax laws.
20 Special Courts The Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces This court is a civilian tribunal, a court operating as part of the judicial branch, entirely separate from the military establishment.The court reviews the more serious convictions of members of the armed forces at a court-martial, or trial involving military law.
21 Sonia Sotomayor  by Obama in 2009 Stephen Breyer  by Clinton in 1994Samuel Alito  by G.W. Bush in 2006Elena Kagen by Obama in 2008 without experienceAJ Clarence Thomas  by G. H. Bush in 1991AJ Antonin Scalia  by Reagan in 1986Ruth bader Ginsburg  by Clinton in 1993CH John Roberts  by G.W.Bush in 2005Anthony Kennedy  by Reagan in 1986