Presentation on theme: "Uzbek Cotton Growing Research Institute J. H. AHMEDOV Research in cotton selection – basis to increase quality and yield."— Presentation transcript:
Uzbek Cotton Growing Research Institute J. H. AHMEDOV Research in cotton selection – basis to increase quality and yield
In the branch of genetic research extension of hermoplasm of wild cultures of cotton — the source of valuable features, consentrated on cultivated sort. Introduction of wild sorts within the local climate conditions, transfer of gens of valuable features of wild and semi-wild variaties of cultivate sorts with systematic study of cotton; study of cotton genetics, finding out the common rules of inheritance of valuable features, and creation and study of new and pure genetic lines on this basis, their usage in selection, as well as in molecular-genetic study of genome of cotton; circumventing the problem of uncrossability of varieties of cotton through mutagenesis and alloplodization of chromosomes. Usage of alloploids of wild varieties and ruderal forms in genetic-selection processes; usage of genetic, physiology, biochemisty of cotton data in the process of creation of markers of associated selection, which is considered to be highly effective; genes cloning for creation of new features of cotton, administration of alien genes and creation of trans-genetic forms of cotton; enrichment of cotton gene pool, improving the methods of search, valuation and synthesis of new initial forms, wide usage of within-variety and cross-variety hybridization, mutagenesis, modern methods of selection and valuation of initial materials; finding out of genotypes with high heterotic effect of precocity and productivity;
In the branch of practical selection a) creation and integration of I-V types of fiber into production, which are practically more plastic and different-factor-resistible, owing the whole range of valuable features precocity, with high rates of ripening, making it possible to harvest cotton in September or fist 10 days of October, and ultraprecocity – taking resowing needs into consideration; high efficiency, allowing to keep production volumes while reducing the areas for cottons; high complex stability to verticellous, fusarial wilt and other illnesses and wreckers; quality in a combination with high output of a fiber at the level of the world standards, especially according to the parameter "microneir"; b) introduction of new varieties of cotton with early natural deciduous; c) creation of the competitive varieties, adapted for extreme conditions of cultivation (salinity resistance, drought resistance, heat tolerance, etc.).
New cotton varieties creation methods Selection methods Analytical method Common selective method Selection of changed varieties within different sorts «108 - F» Population selection «S-1112» «Chimboy- 3010» Synthetic method Methods of crossing Common crossing Complex crossing Within varieties crossing Cross variety crossing An-Bayaut-2, S-4727, Tashkent-6, 175-F, Bukhara-6, Bukhara-8, Bukhara-102, S-6524, Namangan-77, Akdarya-6, Omad, Akkurgan-2, Armugan, Gulbahar etc. Mutagenesis Radiation influence, ultrasound, different mixtures and other matters for plants and seeds Samarkand-3 Oktyabr-60 An-402 Yulduz Karshi-8 Biological method Creation of varieties using geningeering method USA SURE GROW 410 Sure grow 125 Created: Gen Rd Herbicide resistant Gen Bt Insect resistant Australia, China, France
Creation of new high-yield varieties, with customized features to depend on partucular climate of the area Integration of new highly effective methods of growing hydro-melioration and counter-erosion measures Wide use of modern methods of mechanization facilitating the execution of technological operations within the optimal agro- technical period with minimized cost Cotton productivity and fiber quality is increasing through
In the field of cotton seed growing: further development of reproduction methods of elite seeds and the first reproduction, allowing to support a wide spectrum of variability within the population types and interfering the decrease of yield and fast degeneration of varieties; perfection of ways of pre-seeding treatment, preparation and storage of sowing cotton seeds; introduction of methods of cotton seeds processing in gas torch as a result of which the decrease in the norm of sowing of seeds by 50-60 % is reached, increase in a crop of raw cotton by 3-4 c/hec and decrease in gummosis disease of plants of a cotton; use of technology on cotton biostimulators, promoting the acceleration of shoots occurrence, increase of resistance to wreckers and illnesses, intensive growth and development of plants, increase of productivity by 2-3 c/ha, improvement of the quality of fiber and seeds.
Sown area of cotton varieties cultivated by Uzbek Research Institute of Cotton Growing #Cotton varietiesSown area (in ‘000 ha) crop 2006crop 2007 1Bukhara-6302,0227,4 2Akdarya-6100,557,2 3Khorezm -12751,935,0 4Bukhara -10227,5128,3 5Bukhara -861,380,7 6Andijan-358,634,0 7Termez-3121,010,0 8Denov12,510,0 9New varieties6,319,2 TOTAL:591,6601,8
Bukhara - 102 Added in 2006 Vegetation - 115-125 days, Fiber output - 37-38% Fiber length – 33.0-33.5 mm Fiber strength – 4.4-4.6 gs One box weight - 7-8 gr Yield - 45-50 c/ha Micronaire – 4.3-4.4 Andijan - 35 Added in 2006 Vegetation - 120-125 days, Fiber output - 36-37 % Fiber length – 34.0-35.0 mm Fiber strength – 4.9-5.0 gs One box weight – 5-8 gr Yield - 35-40 c/hа Micronaire – 4.7-4.8 Бухара-8 Added in 2006 Vegetation - 120-130 days, Fiber output - 36-38% Fiber length – 35.0-36.0 m Fiber strength – 4.4-4.6 gs One box weight – 9-11 gr Yield - 45-50 c/hа Micronaire – 4.3-4.5 New cotton varieties added into the State register