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Effective Instruction in the Kindergarten Classroom Day 1- 2010 Presented by: Diane Bussema Kathryn Catherman KRESA Developed by: Diane Bussema Kathryn.

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Presentation on theme: "Effective Instruction in the Kindergarten Classroom Day 1- 2010 Presented by: Diane Bussema Kathryn Catherman KRESA Developed by: Diane Bussema Kathryn."— Presentation transcript:

1 Effective Instruction in the Kindergarten Classroom Day Presented by: Diane Bussema Kathryn Catherman KRESA Developed by: Diane Bussema Kathryn Catherman Stephanie Lemmer

2 Credit: Anita L. Archer, Ph.D. Increasing Active Participation MiBLSi Teacher Reading Academy Dynamic Measurement Group

3 Setting Group Expectations To make this day the best possible, we need your assistance and participation –Please allow others to listen Please turn off cell phones and pagers Please limit sidebar conversations Please do not use e mail –Share “air time” –Active participation –Take care of your own needs –Attend to the “Come back together” signal

4 RTI Data Overview Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Principal Agenda

5 What is RtI ? I do one We do one You do one

6 Response to Intervention is….. High Quality Instruction Intervention matched to student need (Differentiation) Data is used to make decisions about instruction A general ed initiative

7 RtI in your classroom is… The same end goals or outcomes for all students We may need to modify our teaching :  Provide smaller group instruction  Reteach concepts  Increase active engagement  Provide increased feedback I do one We do one You do one

8 RtI in your classroom is NOT Preferential seating Shortened assignments Suspension Retention Waiting for the psychologist to test a student Waiting for the student to fall far enough behind to be considered a failure

9 Schoolwide Support: Prevention/Intervention Supplemental: Programs and materials designed to support the core program by addressing specific skill areas related to the “big ideas” in reading. Intervention: Programs and materials designed to provide intensive support for students who are performing below grade level. Core program: A core program (materials and instruction) is designed to provide instruction on the essential areas of reading for the majority of students within the school. The core program should enable 80% or more of students to attain schoolwide reading goals.

10 Response to Intervention A key premise in RtI is the need to ensure that the first tier of reading instruction is adequate, if not exemplary. (Justice, 2006)

11 Schoolwide Support: Prevention/Intervention Tier I This is where RtI and differentiated instruction starts! Tier I

12 An RtI School… Uses a tiered approach for addressing student needs. Maximizes the use of regular and special education resources for the benefit of all students. Adopts interventions and instructional practices that are based in scientific research Uses assessment for the purpose of instructional decision making (screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring).

13 Work Time Think Pair Share Describe the current status of RtI in your school to your partner.

14 DATA What Does The Research Tell Us?

15 © 2006, Dynamic Measurement Group 15 Research on Early Literacy: What Do We Know? 120 Reading Trajectory for Second-Grade Reader

16 Middle and Low Trajectories for Second Graders Words Per Minute 17 Students on a Middle Reading Trajectory 19 Students on a Low Reading Trajectory Grade

17 Reading Trajectories of Low and Middle Readers Words Per Minute Middle 10% Low 10% Grade 1 Cohort Grade 2 Cohort Grade 3 Cohort Grade 4 Cohort Grade 5 Cohort

18 40 Words per Minute at the End of First Grade Puts Children on Trajectory to Reading Words Per Minute Year Months

19 Summary: What Do We Know? Reading trajectories are established early. Readers on a low trajectory tend to stay on that trajectory. Students on a low trajectory tend to fall further and further behind. UNLESS…

20 Model for Student Success

21 The benefits of using Curriculum Based Measures Growth Efficient Sensitive Subtests Reliable and valid Easy Assess skills Computerized Scoring Inexpensive

22 Steps for Successful Readers (Roland Good) Phonemic Awareness (Spring, Kdg) Fluency with Connected Text (Spring, 1 st) Alphabetic Principle (Winter, 1 st ) Probability: On-Track.64 (n=348) Probability: On-Track.86 (n=138) Probability: Catch-Up.17 (n=183) Probability: Catch-Up.22 (n=180) Probability of remaining an average reader in fourth grade when an average reader in first grade is.87 Probability of remaining a poor reader at the end of fourth grade when a poor reader at the end of first grade is.88 (Juel, 1988) Fluency with Connected Text (Spring, 2 nd) Fluency with Connected Text (Spring, 3 rd) Probability: Catch-Up.03 (n=114) Probability: Catch-Up.06 (n=213) Probability: On-Track.83 (n=246) Probability: On-Track.81 (n=196) We need to have the odds with us!

23 Vocabulary Risk Categories Used Prior to Benchmark Time Status Categories Used At or After Benchmark Time Instructional Level Low RiskEstablishedBenchmark Some Risk (Prevention Mode) Emerging (Remediation Mode) Strategic At Risk (Prevention Mode) Deficit (Remediation Mode) Intensive

24 DIBELS REPORTS Histograms & Class Lists Using DIBELS to the Fullest How to read your reports. How to use the reports to move your instruction forward.

25 Histograms What Decisions? How are students doing at a given grade level? How many are at Benchmark? How wide is the spread of skills? How intensive is the need? Who? School Improvement Team and Grade level teachers. How often? Three times per year

26 Legend for Interpreting Histograms = Low Risk or Established = Some Risk or Emerging = At Risk or Deficit Note: Split bars are used when the cutoff scores between categories occur in the middle of a score range. The number of students is indicated by the size of the split part. From DIBELS Data System, University of Oregon,

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29 Class Lists What Decisions? What will be the specific instructional priorities for each student in the class? How will students be grouped for differentiation? How intensive? What will the 90 minute block include? Who? Grade Level Team and Individual Classroom Teacher How often? Three times per year

30 DIBELS First Grade Class List

31 Second Grade Class List 2007/2008

32 TIER I: CORE CLASS INSTRUCTION Focus Program Interventionist Setting Grouping Time Assessment For all students Scientific-based reading instruction and curriculum emphasizing the five critical elements of reading General education teacher General education classroom Flexible grouping; all grouping formats used 90 minutes per day or more Benchmark assessment at beginning, middle, and end of the academic year

33 Schoolwide Reading Support: Prevention/Intervention Tier I Tier 2 This is where RtI and differentiated instruction starts! Tier 1 Classroom Instruction Tier 3

34 The Big Ideas of Reading Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic Principle Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension

35 What is a big idea? A Big idea is: - Predictive of reading acquisition and later reading achievement - Something we can do something about, something we can teach - Something that improves outcomes for children when we teach it

36 Components Typically Emphasized at Each Grade Level Written Expression Comprehension Skills/Strategies Passage Fluency Vocabulary Advanced Phonics/Decoding Basic Phonics Phonological Awareness GradeK

37 PA is the ability to focus on and manipulate the phonemes in spoken words. Critical skill: Segmentation and blending Phonemic Awareness What is it?

38 Based on two parts: 1. Alphabetic Understanding: Letters represent sounds in words. 2. Phonological Recoding. Letter sounds can be blended together to make words. Phonics What is it?

39 Fluent readers can read text with appropriate rate, accuracy and proper expression. Fluency=automaticity Fluency What is it?

40 The Matthew Effect (Stanovich, 2000) Exposed to 1,800,000 words per year Exposed to 282,000 words per year Exposed to 8,000 words per year < 1 minute4.6 minutes20 minutes Time spent reading each day Statistics derived from Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

41 A person’s ability to store word meanings in their lexicon. A reader must be able to access words and their meanings on both a receptive and expressive level. Vocabulary What is it?

42 Vocabulary Gap Children enter schools with different levels of vocabulary – Meaningful Differences (Hart & Risley, 1995) Importance of Vocabulary Words heard per hour Words heard in a 100-hour week Words heard in a 5,200 hour year 3 years Poverty62062,0003 million10 million Working Class1,250125,0006 million20 million Professional2,150215,00011 million30 million

43 The essence of reading (Durkin, 93) An active process that engages the reader by requiring them to intentionally think and interact with the text in order to make meaning. (NRP) Comprehension What is it?

44 Work Time Quick Write – list the big ideas of literacy and one interesting fact! Share with your partner! *Exit Slip

45 Phonemic Awareness

46 What is Phonological Awareness? The ability to hear and manipulate the sound structure of language. This is an encompassing term that involves working with the sounds of language at the word, syllable, and phoneme (sound) level.

47 When Should Phonological Awareness be Taught? Preschool – Listening, alliteration, rhyming sound games Kindergarten – First sounds, blending and segmenting sounds First grade and above – Should be established

48 Components Typically Emphasized at Each Grade Level Written Expression Comprehension Skills/Strategies Passage Fluency Vocabulary Advanced Phonics/Decoding Basic Phonics Phonological Awareness GradeK

49 Phonological Awareness rhyme, alliteration, sentence, word, onset-rime, phoneme awareness Phoneme Awareness Ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual speech sounds Phoneme Segmentation scat = /s/ /k/ /ă/ /t/ Phoneme Blending /s/ /k/ /ă/ /t/ = scat Orthography Letters and letter patterns + Phonics

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51 Rhyme & Alliteration Books Concrete objects Activities Learning Center – Florida Center for Reading Research Teaching Reading Sourcebook-Core Literacy Library, Arena Press

52 Alliteration Activities I’ll say three words you tell me which words begin with the same sound: garden, girl, share (garden, girl) I‘ll say a word you tell me 2 more words that begin with the same sound as pet. Let’s make a sentence about big brown bears using two more words that begin with the /b/ sound. Big Brown Bears buy berries.

53 Sentence Segmentation Claps or Finger The cat sees a dog. The teacher slowly says a sentence: “We are going to lunch” Children take one step, hop, skip for each word in the sentence. I’m going to say a sentence: Ethan gave me the book. (Children echo the sentence pointing to or moving a manipulative as they say each word: Ethan…gave…me…the…book.) How many words are in the sentence ? ( Children count the manipulatives and say: There are five words in the sentence.)

54 Syllables Bippity, bibbity bumble bee, tell me what your name should be. 1.Clap it 2.Whisper it 3.Silent Phonemic Awareness in Young Children by Marilyn Marilyn Jager Adams

55 Onsets and Rimes Sound Blocks 1.The teacher gives children two plain blocks. 2.The blocks are placed in a row. 3.The teacher says: “When I want to say tap in two parts, I touch the blocks like this.” (Touch the first block and say “/t/”; touch the second block and say “-ap”) 4.The teacher says other words that end in “-ap.” 5.The children touch the blocks as they say the words in two parts.

56 Work Time Using Your Basal Strategically 1.Using your TE find the Big Idea- Phonological Awareness. 2. Map out the skills that are taught each day during the theme. 3. Do the students already have this skill (data) ? Can this be a quick review ? 4.Which students do not have the PA skill taught from the basal ? 5.Focus explicit instruction with these students in small group.

57 Phonological Awareness rhyme, alliteration, sentence, word, onset-rime, phoneme awareness Phoneme Awareness Ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual speech sounds Phoneme Segmentation scat = /s/ /k/ /ă/ /t/ Phoneme Blending /s/ /k/ /ă/ /t/ = scat Orthography Letters and letter patterns + Phonics

58 Phonemic Awareness The awareness and understanding of the sound structure of our language Understanding that spoken words are made up of sequences of individual speech sounds “cat” is composed of the sounds /k/ /a/ /t/

59 Phonemic Awareness “cat” begins with the sound ____.” “cat” ends with the sound ____.” “cat” with a /h/ at the beginning becomes “____.” “hat” with a /m/ at the end becomes “____.”

60 What We Know from Research Phonemic awareness gives students a way to approach reading new words. Phonemic awareness helps all children to read. Phonemic awareness instruction is most effective when children are taught to use letters to represent phonemes. Phonemic awareness helps preschoolers, kindergarteners, and first graders learn to spell.

61 Why Phonemic Awareness is Difficult

62 Phonemic Awareness Direct and explicit Brief (5-7 minutes) Fast paced and lively so that all students are engaged Oral and auditory

63 Explicit and Systematic Explicit instruction refers to lessons in which concepts are clearly explained and skills are clearly modeled. Systematic instruction in a logical sequence, where newly introduced skills are built on existing skills, and tasks are arranged from simplest to complex.

64 An Important Model I do one We do one You do one

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66 Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Examiner says a word; student says the sounds in the word. Score: Number of correct sound segments student says in 1 minute.

67 Phonemic Awareness 1. I’ll Say the Sounds 2. Say It and Move It 3. Elkonian –Sound Boxes 4. Fist

68 I’ll Say the Sound Blending Sounds into Words 1. We’re going to play a say-the-word game. I’ll say the sounds. You say the word. 2. Listen. aaaammmmm 3. What word? am 4. (Repeat with other words.) 5. (If time permits, check individual students.) (Practice: man, sat, ship, trap)

69 Work Time Using Your Basal Strategically 1.With your partner, use your Basal TE, to find ten words from the PA section. 2.Practice with your partner blending these words using the technique I’ll Say the Sound. 3.Be ready to share with your best example.

70 Say-It-and-Move-It This is listening and sound counting not letter recognition Model how to use 1 finger and how to sweep

71 Say-It-and-Move-It

72 Work Time Using Your Basal Strategically 1.Find ten words from your basal that would be appropriate to use for a Say-It-and-Move-It activity. 2.With your partner, practice doing at least five words each. 3.Be prepared to share how you might use this in your classroom when you go back.

73 Sound Boxes

74 Work Time Using Your Basal Strategically 1.Find ten words from your basal that would be appropriate to use for the sound boxes activity. 2.With your partner, practice doing at least five words each. 3.By table go to the overhead/document camera and teach a lesson to your table.Your table will be your students.

75 Fist Segmenting Words into Sounds - Separate Segmenting 1. We’re going to say the sounds in a word. 2. Fist in the air. Put up one finger for each sound. 3. The word is sat. What word? sat 4. First sound? /sss/ Next sound? /aaa/ Last sound? /t/ 5. (If time permits, check individual students.) (Practice: fan, fast, shop, with)

76 Work Time Using Your Basal Strategically 1.With your partner create a list of ten words from your basal that would be appropriate for segmenting at this time of year for your students. 2.Practice with your partner 3.Be ready to share with your best example.

77 Explicit and Systematic PA Instruction During a lesson, target only one type of PA, such as blending or segmenting. Begin with easier activities and progress to more difficult ones. Model each activity. As soon as possible, help children make the connection between letters and sounds to read and spell words.

78 RTI/Differentiation- Reteach in Small Groups Provide opportunities to practice PA with teacher support and guidance. Integrate practice in PA throughout the curriculum and the school day. I do one We do one You do one

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80 In Summary 1. I’ll Say the Sounds 2. Say It and Move It 3. Elkonian –Sound Boxes 4. Fist

81 Alphabetic Principle

82 Alphabetic Principal Phonics

83 Alphabetic Principle Based on two parts: – Alphabetic Understanding. Letters represent sounds in words a m v p s

84 Alphabetic Principle – Phonological Recoding. Letter sounds can be blended together and knowledge of letter -sound associations can be used to read/decode words. a m p

85 When Should the Alphabetic Principle be Taught? Preschool – Familiarity with alphabet Kindergarten – Familiarity with alphabet – Letter sounds, beginning blending First grade – Letter sounds, blends and decodes simple words fluently, reads grade level material accurately

86 Why Alphabetic Principle? Letter-sound knowledge is prerequisite to word identification. A primary difference between good and poor readers is the ability to use letter-sound correspondences to decode words. Letter-sound knowledge can be taught. Teaching the alphabetic principle leads to gains in reading acquisition/achievement.

87 What Kind of Phonics? What is “systematic”? preplanned skill sequence progresses from easier to more difficult (scaffolding) What is “explicit”? The teacher: explains and models gives guided practice watches and gives corrective feedback plans extended practice on skills, as needed by individuals applies skill to reading words, sentences, books

88 Explicit and Systematic Instruction  Teach frequently-used letters and sounds  Introduce only a few letter-sound correspondences at a time  Model and present each individual letter and its most common sound.  Begin with letter-sound correspondences that can be combined to make words children can decode, read, and understand.

89 Effective Teachers Vary Time and Emphasis on Phonics Teachers rated as most effective overall. – Spent more time on foundational skills Especially when students’ entry-level skills were low – Varied the emphasis of their instruction, according to the needs of their students.

90 Structure of English Phoneme: a speech sound that combines with others in a language system to make words; English has phonemes. Consonant Phonemes: there are about 25 consonant phonemes. Vowel Phonemes: there are about 18 vowel phonemes.

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93 Teaching Letter Names P Point to the card and say: This is the letter P. It has a straight line down and then goes up and around. With your finger, trace the letter from top to bottom and then back up and around. Say: This is the letter P. What is the name of this letter ?  Repeat procedure with at least two other examples, pointing to the letter and tracing the lines. I do one We do one You do one

94 Alphabet Names and Forms Alphabet Arc (Neuhaus Education Center) helps students learn letter recognition and sequencing. While teaching a new phoneme, reinforce the letter names and forms so the student can associate the sound with its letter.

95 Alphabet Arc

96 Letter Characteristics Shapes that are visually similar  B-D, B-P, E-F, F-P, G-O,K-X, M-N, M-W, O-Q,O- U,P-R,U-V, V-Y  b-d, b-p, b-q, d-g, d-q, e-a, g-q, g-y, i-j,i-l,k-x, m-n, n-c, n-h, p-q, u-v, u-w, u-y, w-m, y-v  Cc, Kk, Pp, Ss, Uu, Vv, Ww, Xx, Zz,

97 Write out the sounds included within each of the following letter names A /a/B /b/ /e/ C D E F GH I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

98 How did you do? A /a/B /b/ /e/ C /s/ /e/ D /d/, /e/ E /e/ F /e/ /f/ G /j/ /e/ H /a/ /ch/ I / i/ J /j/ /a/ K /k/ / a/ L /e/ /l/ M /e/ /m/N /e/ /n/O /o/ P /p/ /e/ Q /k/ /y/ /oo/R /ar/ S /e/ /s/T /t/ /e/ U /y/ /oo/ V /v/, /e/ W /d/ /u/ /b/ /l/ /y/ /oo/ X /e/ /k/ /s/Y /w/ / i/ Z /z/ /e/

99 Letter Knowledge  The learning of letter sounds is quite different from the learning of letter shapes and names.  Students need more time to learn the sounds of some letters than others. (Treiman and Kessler 2003)

100 Letter-Sound Associations - How? Alphabet Chart Alphabet Chart Vowel Chart

101 Letter Combinations  Consonant blends  Consonant digraphs  Vowel combinations

102 Pocket Charts

103 Letter Sound Practice Alphabet books provide an excellent opportunity for students to hear, say, and see the alphabet. ( Not explicit ) ABC Charts DVD’s Computer Programs

104 Using a T Graph Sorting /m/ & /s/ Sounds There are many ways of using a T graph. First demonstrate on an overhead to the whole class. Next identify students that need further instruction and pull back for small group. Finally as a review use as seat work or in a center. (this is not a coloring time) This activity could also be a Closed or Open Sort.

105 Work Time Sorting with T graph Look at basal to see what sounds are being taught-use last weeks sounds to provide additional practice with the sounds With your partner think of other sorting activities that you could possibly use before or after this sort Be ready to share an idea

106 Letter Naming- Automaticity PMTAmsMPSaPMtoTsotmaPMTAmsMPSaPMtoTsotma

107 Decoding of Regular Words As soon as sounds are learned, incorporate the sounds into words. Model blending of sounds into words. Provide an adequate amount of practice on decoding words.

108 Sound by Sound Blending ra 1.Write r and say /r/. 2.Write a and say /a/. 3.Slide fingers under ra and say /ra/. 4.Write t and say /t/. 5.Slide finders under rat and say /rat/. 6.Say “The word is rat.” and use it in a sentence t 4. 5.

109 Work Time Using Your Basal Strategically 1.Create a list of 20 words using the sounds you have already taught in your basal. 2. Watch Video: Blending Routines  Sound- by- sound 3.With your partner design a lesson to instruct your students on blending routines. 4.Be ready to demonstrate your lesson to the gro up

110 1.Decodable Book Blending and decoding the sounds in words

111 Decodable Books Majority of the words are :  linked to phonics instruction using sound/spelling  spelling patterns that have been taught  some previously taught irregular sight words, including high frequency words

112 1.Letter Boxes

113 2. Sight words Sight words are words that are recognized immediately, whether it is a regular or irregular word. The ultimate goal is for all words, regular and irregular, to be read automatically with little effort.

114 Increasing Sight Words Index cards Read and reread text that contain the words, decodable text Write sentences Word Walls

115 Irregular Words  Contain some letters that do not represent their most commonly used sounds  Tend to be high frequency words that students encounter often in their reading and writing  Can be partially decoded

116 Increasing Sight Words Dictation By writing

117 Letter-Sound Associations Review Provide explicit instruction to introduce letter-sound associations. Teach letter-sound associations to a high level of mastery. Provide cumulative review. - Eternal Review


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