Presentation on theme: "Effective Instruction in the Kindergarten Classroom Day"— Presentation transcript:
1Effective Instruction in the Kindergarten Classroom Day 1- 2010 Presented by:Diane BussemaKathryn CathermanKRESADeveloped by:Diane BussemaKathryn CathermanStephanie Lemmer
2Credit: Anita L. Archer, Ph.D. Increasing Active Participation 2007. MiBLSiTeacher Reading AcademyDynamic Measurement Group
3Setting Group Expectations To make this day the best possible, we need your assistance and participationPlease allow others to listenPlease turn off cell phones and pagersPlease limit sidebar conversationsPlease do not use e mailShare “air time”Active participationTake care of your own needsAttend to the “Come back together” signalReview:SignalActive participationACTIVE PARTICIPATION: Partners (1 and 2)Flag your notebook for Active ParticipationVideo Power Teaching
4Agenda RTI Data Overview Phonological Awareness Alphabetic Principal Make I can statementsExplain pocket folder and color coordinated handoutsParking Lot
6Response to Intervention is….. High Quality InstructionIntervention matched to student need (Differentiation)Data is used to make decisions about instructionA general ed initiativeEducators are still having difficulty seeing RtI as a general ed initiative.Brings together Regular, Title One, and Special EducationDocuments effective educational practicesAligns identification procedures with effective instructionStudents come to school with a wide variety of skill, abilities, interests, and varying degrees of proficiency in English. Diverse learners demand instruction that supports their special needs. This differentiated instruction meets the needs of students with reading difficulties, students with disabilities, advanced students, and English-language learners.Using data, teachers can plan appropriate instruction that supports students’ diverse needs.Children come to school at very different skill, ability and language levels.For example kindergarteners: How many of students know abc, know their letter sound, can write their name, count to 20? Then on the other hand how many students can’t write their name, don’t know any letters, can’t sit and listen to a book etc.Differentiated instruction meets the needs of students with reading difficulties, students with disabilities, advanced students, and English-language learners.Data is used to plan appropriate instruction that supports students’ diverse needs.
7RtI in your classroom is… The same end goals or outcomes for all studentsWe may need to modify our teaching :Provide smaller group instructionReteach conceptsIncrease active engagementProvide increased feedbackI do oneWe do oneYou do oneRead and write same state standards…Diane-Heart of Good InstructionI do it!We do it!You do it!
8RtI in your classroom is NOT Preferential seatingShortened assignmentsSuspensionRetentionWaiting for the psychologist to test a studentWaiting for the student to fall far enough behind to be considered a failure
9Schoolwide Support: Prevention/Intervention Intervention: Programs and materials designed to provide intensive support for students who are performing below grade level.Supplemental: Programs and materials designed to support the core program by addressing specific skill areas related to the “big ideas” in reading.Core program: A core program (materials and instruction) is designed to provide instruction on the essential areas of reading for the majority of students within the school. The core program should enable 80% or more of students to attain schoolwide reading goals.Today we will talk about the students in the red zone and how to instruct them in such a way as to accelerate their growth. We cannot forget however, that intensive interventions are most effective when used in a system where a systematic and explicit core program is delivered with integrity.Make sure to use to bring in Tier1, 2, 3Tier 2Students who do not achieve benchmarks are provided additional evidence based interventions each day beyond the core program.Students are re-screened every 2-4 weeks to determine whether interventions are resulting in sufficient/accelerated progress toward the goal. (progress monitoring)Tier 3A small percentage of students require more intense intervention each day beyond the interventions in Tier 2 because they have not shown progress.Progress monitoring should occur every 1-2 weeks.8
10Response to Intervention A key premise in RtI is the need to ensure that the first tier of reading instruction is adequate, if not exemplary. (Justice, 2006)This is what we are trying to attack:Knowing what to teach whenKnowing the Core Standards for your grade levelUsing you core program to teach these standsHow to use your core to meet that need of your studentsWhat skills are taught whole groupWhat skills are low priorityHow to use your core for small group instrucitonThis is what this series of workshops is designed to do. Your core program provides you with the WHAT you need to teach. It offers very little on the How to teach. We will provide you with specific instructional formats and lesson designs to make your presentation of WHAT you teach more powerful.
11Schoolwide Support: Prevention/Intervention Tier IThis is where RtI and differentiated instruction starts!Today we will talk about the students in the red zone and how to instruct them in such a way as to accelerate their growth. We cannot forget however, that intensive interventions are most effective when used in a system where a systematic and explicit core program is delivered with integrity.In Tier one all students receive core instruction using a research based core comprehensive curriculum.All students are screened a minimum of three times per year and compared to identified benchmarks.Grade level and classroom teams use the data to inform instruction, gain feedback regarding the success of the curriculum, determine need for deeper assessment, and identify students who need tier II interventionTurn to your organizer (Frayer Model)Explain your understanding of Tier 1 instruction.Add graphic organizers under g, frayer model under f, notetaking under n80%-15%-5%Tier I8
12An RtI School… Uses a tiered approach for addressing student needs. Maximizes the use of regular and special education resources for the benefit of all students.Adopts interventions and instructional practices that are based in scientific researchUses assessment for the purpose of instructional decision making (screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring).
13Work Time Think Pair Share Describe the current status of RtI in your school to your partner.Fill in the triangle to show how Rti is set up schoolwide in your school.
16Middle and Low Trajectories for Second Graders Words Per Minute17 Students on a Middle Reading Trajectory19 Students on a Low Reading TrajectoryGrade 2204060801001201402s tell 1s three things you notice about this data.Picture shows 2 groups of students. Green line trajectories of students in the middle 10% of 2nd grade children. The red lines are the students in the bottom 10% of second grade. Twos identify 3 things that you notice about this picture.Big Ideas:Goes upness in both groupsSome flat lines in the bottom groupBottom group ends up where the middle group began, and the bottom gp never catches up to the middle groupRemember this is a comparison of the bottom group to middle group, not the high group16
17Reading Trajectories of Low and Middle Readers Words Per MinuteMiddle 10%Low 10%Grade 1 CohortGrade 2 CohortGrade 3 CohortGrade 4 CohortGrade 5 Cohort1s tell 2s three things you notice about this data.We can see in this slide that the gap just widens. Low readers fall further behind over time. The red line represents the children in the bottom 10% from 1st to 6th grade. The green line represents the performance of children in the middle 10% of children. What do you see?Big Ideas:1. There is variability in both groups- both go up and down2. Both groups go up over time3. Both groups start at the same place4. The gap between the two groups widens over timeSimply going up is not enough. If we want to prevent reading difficulty we need to know how much to the student needs to improve at specific points across time, and we need to intervene at the earliest point where the gap is the smallest17
1840 Words per Minute at the End of First Grade Puts Children on Trajectory to Reading YearMonths20406080100120140When we look at these two groups of students we see that at about the end of first grade is where we see the split between the two groups. If the student is reading 40 words per minute at the end of the year they are likely to stay on course for grade level reading and the green trajectory if not, they are likely to stay on the red trajectory.This is why early intervention is so important. As you know remediation once a child leaves first grade is extremely difficult.Tie in RtI and the importance of monitoring children’s progress in the earliest grades.18
19Summary: What Do We Know? Reading trajectories are established early.Readers on a low trajectory tend to stay on that trajectory.Students on a low trajectory tend to fall further and further behind.UNLESS…Do a think pair share before this slide: What are the implications of this data?19
20Model for Student Success Stress the importance of using data to inform instruction as a part of the continuous teaching and learning cycle.TOP=InstructionRIGHT=Continuous assessmentLEFT=Data based instructional planningACTIVE PARTICIPATION: Short Written Responses (Letters, Numbers, Sight words)
21Curriculum Based Measures The benefits of usingCurriculum Based MeasuresEasyAssess skillsComputerizedScoringInexpensiveGrowthEfficientSensitiveSubtestsReliable and validShow Progress Monitoring booklets.Guideline:Intensive: WeeklyStrategic: Every other weekBenchmark: Monthly, unless well above final benchmark criteriaDefine Curriculum Based Measures: Not embedded tests from core reading program, they are summative measures
22Steps for Successful Readers (Roland Good) Probability: On-Track.81 (n=196)We need to have the odds with us!Fluency withConnected Text(Spring, 3rd)Probability: On-Track.83 (n=246)Fluency withConnected Text(Spring, 2nd)Probability: Catch-Up.06 (n=213)Probability: On-Track.86 (n=138)Fluency withConnected Text(Spring, 1st)Probability: Catch-Up.03 (n=114)Probability: On-Track.64 (n=348)AlphabeticPrinciple(Winter, 1st)Probability: Catch-Up.22 (n=180)NWF / decoding in place !!!!!! Or won’t be able to ORFNext difficulty –AP but getting into Word Strategies –more sophisticated decoding strategicPhonemicAwareness(Spring, Kdg)Probability: Catch-Up.17 (n=183)Probability of remaining an average reader in fourth grade when an average reader in first grade is .87Probability of remaining a poor reader at the end of fourth grade when a poor reader at the end of first grade is .88 (Juel, 1988)
23Vocabulary Risk Categories Used Prior to Benchmark Time Status Categories Used At or After Benchmark TimeInstructional LevelLow RiskEstablishedBenchmarkSome Risk(Prevention Mode)Emerging(Remediation Mode)StrategicAt RiskDeficitIntensiveFirst let’s talk about the vocabulary of the reports. This table shows the different vocabulary that is used in the reports and when it is used. Note that when we’re talking about Risk categories, our additional support is prevention. When we’re talking about Status categories, our additional support is no longer prevention, we’ve moved to remediation because we’re working on skills that are overdue. The last column refers to the instructional recommendation with regard to intensity.23
24DIBELS REPORTS Histograms & Class Lists Using DIBELS to the FullestHow to read your reports.How to use the reports to moveyour instruction forward.
25School Improvement Team and Grade level teachers. HistogramsWhat Decisions?How are students doing at a given grade level? How many are at Benchmark? How wide is the spread of skills? How intensive is the need?Who?School Improvement Team and Grade level teachers.How often?Three times per yearFix turn into ?’s
26Legend for Interpreting Histograms Note: Split bars are used when the cutoff scores between categories occur in the middle of a score range. The number of students is indicated by the size of the split part.= Low Risk or Established= Some Risk or Emerging= At Risk or DeficitAnd here’s an example of that…Split bars are used when the cutoff scores between categories occur in the middle of a score range. The number of students is indicatedby the size of the split part.About how many students are in the Some Risk range? (15-16 or so)From DIBELS Data System, University of Oregon,26
29Grade Level Team and Individual Classroom Teacher Class ListsWhat Decisions?What will be the specific instructional priorities for each student in the class? How will students be grouped for differentiation? How intensive? What will the 90 minute block include?Who?Grade Level Team and Individual Classroom TeacherHow often?Three times per year
31Second Grade Class List 2007/2008 When DIBELS Next is implemented
32TIER I: CORE CLASS INSTRUCTION FocusFor all studentsScientific-based reading instruction and curriculum emphasizing the five critical elements of readingProgramGroupingFlexible grouping; all grouping formats usedTime90 minutes per day or moreBenchmark assessment at beginning, middle,and end of the academic yearAssessmentA well taught core will reduce the number of children needing additional instruction.Helping you identifying the most important tasks and schedule instruction so that priority topics are covered dailyHow to overtly and clearly teach specific skillsHow to provide extra practice when new material is being introduced too quicklyHow to provide carefully controlled vocabulary or syntax during instructionInterventionistGeneral education teacherSettingGeneral education classroom
33Schoolwide Reading Support: Prevention/Intervention Tier ITier 2Tier 3This is where RtI and differentiated instruction starts!Today we will talk about the students in the red zone and how to instruct them in such a way as to accelerate their growth. We cannot forget however, that intensive interventions are most effective when used in a system where a systematic and explicit core program is delivered with integrity.In Tier one all students receive core instruction using a research based core comprehensive curriculum.All students are screened a minimum of three times per year and compared to identified benchmarks.Grade level and classroom teams use the data to inform instruction, gain feedback regarding the success of the curriculum, determine need for deeper assessment, and identify students who need tier II interventionTurn to your organizer (Frayer Model)Explain your understanding of Tier 1 instruction.Add graphic organizers under g, frayer model under f, notetaking under nTier 1Classroom Instruction8
34The Big Ideas of Reading Phonemic AwarenessAlphabetic PrincipleFluencyVocabularyComprehensionLearning to read requires a combination of skillsPhonemic awarenss-the ability to notice, think about and work with the individual sounds in spoken wordsPhonics-understanding the relationship between letters (graphemes ) of written language and individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken languageVocabulary- words we must know to commnicate effectivelyFluency-ability to read text accurately and quicklyComprehension-gaining understanding and meaning from text
35What is a big idea? A Big idea is: - Predictive of reading acquisition and later reading achievement- Something we can do something about, something we can teach- Something that improves outcomes for children when we teach it
36Components Typically Emphasized at Each Grade Level Written ExpressionComprehension Skills/StrategiesPassage FluencyVocabularyAdvanced Phonics/DecodingBasic PhonicsPhonological AwarenessGradeK123456+Provide opportunities for participants to discuss the fact that while the skills in Phonological Awareness are typically taught and mastered in K and grade 1, instruction in this skill may be necessary for those older students who do not have a solid foundation in these skills.Difficulties in mastering phonology may be due to congenital brain dysfunction or abnormalities or due to a lack of exposure and instruction in these skills during the early grades. All students, however, must have a firm foundation in phonological awareness before they are able to best take advantage of instruction in reading and spelling.
37Phonemic Awareness What is it? PA is the ability to focus on and manipulate the phonemes in spoken words.Critical skill: Segmentation and blendingYou can do it with your eyes closed.Impacts spelling.Elementary:Taught in a progression of simple to complex skills.Isolation: initial, final, medialCategorizationBlendingSegmentationDeletion/substitutionAdolescent LiteracyPhonemic Awareness is not directly taught to adolescents.Students that lack the skill of blending and segmenting words have a more difficult time with word attack skills for multisyllabic words.Application to spelling: lack of PA will impair ability to spell.Should be brought to grade level as soon as possible in kdg.Once a child can segment 35 phonemes in 1” there is no advantage to being able to go faster.Once the skill is mastered it can easily be maintained through phonics.
38Phonics What is it? Based on two parts: 1. Alphabetic Understanding: Letters representsounds in words.2. Phonological Recoding. Letter sounds can be blended together to make words.Synthetic phonicsElementaryGoal of all phonics programs is to provide students with necessary knowledge to use the alphabetic code so they can progress normally in learning to read and comprehending written language.Phonics elements should be taughtexplicitly and systematically.Recommended by NRP greatest effect size in the research
39Fluency What is it?Fluent readers can read text with appropriate rate, accuracy and proper expression.Fluency=automaticityStays consistent through out the gradesRepeated reading using instructional level textGuided oral readingEcho readingPeer assisted readingMust have time doing repeated reading at the instructional level.SSR and DEAR is not effectiveLarge amounts of this in adolescent literacy is a waste of timeLack of automaticity hinders comprehension. When the reader is spending too much time figuring out unknown words their cognitive process can not focus on comprehension.Rich get Richer: Matthew Effect
40The Matthew Effect (Stanovich, 2000) LETRS Module 4 Presenter's Kit4/15/2017The Matthew Effect (Stanovich, 2000)Exposed to1,800,000 words per year282,000 wordsper year8,000 words< 1 minute4.6 minutes20 minutes• Review with participants the devastating effects of lack of exposure to print over time. (The Matthew Effect refers to the biblical passage, where “the rich get richer, and the poor get poorer.”)• When students do not decode well, are not motivated to read often, and/or come from an environment that does not value literature, they are likely to read less often. This lack of exposure to print creates a cycle; they are not exposed to many new words through text and do not learn the meanings of new words at the necessary rate to keep up with their peers.• As a consequence, students who do not read daily have a decrease in their vocabulary knowledge over time, which affects their language comprehension abilities.Stanovich, K. E. (2000). Progress in understanding reading: Scientific foundations and new frontiers. New York: The Guilford Press.Variation in Amount of Independent ReadingMinutes Per Day Words Read Per Year,358,000,823,000,146,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000Anderson, Wilson, and Fielding (1988)Time spent reading each dayStatistics derived from Shaywitz, S. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
41Vocabulary What is it?A person’s ability to store word meanings in their lexicon.A reader must be able to access words and their meanings on both a receptive and expressive level.Explicit instruction and Read Alouds are appropriate at all grade levels.Best Practices include:High-Quality Classroom LanguageReading Aloud to StudentsExplicit Vocabulary InstructionWord-Learning StrategiesWide Independent ReadingElementary: Most instruction occurs through explicit instruction and Read AloudsAdolescent Level: Instruction occurs through explicit instructionLack of vocabulary impedes comprehension because students are reading to learn. It is also cruel because the text level used being at the 4th grade takes a major shifts from a predictable to a more complex text. The demands of the text become much greater.Instruction needs to include morphology so that the students have a strategy to help figure out the meaning of unknown words.When we say expressive we are meaning speaking and writing.
42Importance of Vocabulary Vocabulary GapChildren enter schools with different levelsof vocabularyMeaningful Differences (Hart & Risley, 1995)Words heard per hourWords heard in a 100-hour weekWords heard in a 5,200 hour year3 yearsPoverty62062,0003 million10 millionWorking Class1,250125,0006 million20 millionProfessional2,150215,00011 million30 millionRemove? Good quick research/data
43Comprehension What is it? The essence of reading (Durkin, 93)An active process that engages the reader by requiring them to intentionally think and interact with the text in order to make meaning. (NRP)This requires prior knowledge, vocabulary and strategies.
44Work TimeQuick Write – list the big ideas of literacy and one interesting fact!Share with your partner!*Exit SlipWrite your 5 spelling words before you walk out for lunch.
46What is Phonological Awareness? The ability to hear and manipulate the sound structure of language. This is an encompassing term that involves working with the sounds of language at the word, syllable, and phoneme (sound) level.Easy to remember- “ You can do it in the dark” no print
47When Should Phonological Awareness be Taught? PreschoolListening, alliteration, rhyming sound gamesKindergartenFirst sounds, blending and segmenting soundsFirst grade and aboveShould be established
48Components Typically Emphasized at Each Grade Level Written ExpressionComprehension Skills/StrategiesPassage FluencyVocabularyAdvanced Phonics/DecodingBasic PhonicsPhonological AwarenessGradeK123456+Provide opportunities for participants to discuss the fact that while the skills in Phonological Awareness are typically taught and mastered in K and grade 1, instruction in this skill may be necessary for those older students who do not have a solid foundation in these skills.All students, however, must have a firm foundation in phonological awareness before they are able to best take advantage of instruction in reading and spelling.Active Participation: PartnersPartner #1 tell partner #2 what you are responsible to teach in kindergarten.#2 do you agreeIf time discuss which one you feel is most important for this time of year and what the needs of your own students
49Phonological Awareness rhyme, alliteration, sentence, word, onset-rime, phoneme awarenessPhoneme AwarenessAbility to hear, identify, and manipulate individual speech soundsHere is an graphic example of how this all fits together.Phoneme Segmentationscat = /s/ /k/ /ă/ /t/OrthographyLetters and letter patterns+Phoneme Blending/s/ /k/ /ă/ /t/ = scatPhonics
51Rhyme & Alliteration Books Concrete objects Activities Learning Center – Florida Center for ReadingResearchTeaching Reading Sourcebook-Core LiteracyLibrary, Arena PressThe recognition of rhyme may be the entry point to phonemic awareness Bryant 1990Rhyme Recognition Memory Match FCRRDemo : Doc Camera -Rhyme Game
52Alliteration Activities I’ll say three words you tell me which words begin with the same sound: garden, girl, share (garden, girl)I‘ll say a word you tell me 2 more words that begin with the same sound as pet.Let’s make a sentence about big brown bears using two more words that begin with the /b/ sound.Big Brown Bears buy berries.Ethan at 2 years thought he was so cool “ Two Toots of the Tussie”Example 1 I Do IT I’ll say ….snail ball sunWe Do It I’ll say …. apple moon mouseYou Do It --would be individual checkingExample 2 My turn pet…… pumpkin…..purpleExample 3 Do with your partner
53Sentence Segmentation Claps or Finger The cat sees a dog.The teacher slowly says a sentence:“We are going to lunch”Children take one step, hop, skip for each word in the sentence.I’m going to say a sentence: Ethan gave me the book.(Children echo the sentence pointing to or moving a manipulative as they say each word: Ethan…gave…me…the…book.)How many words are in the sentence ?( Children count the manipulatives and say: There are five words in the sentence.)Demo 3rd bullet on the Doc camera using bingo chips
54SyllablesBippity, bibbity bumble bee, tell me what your name should be.Clap itWhisper itSilentPhonemic Awareness in Young Children by Marilyn Marilyn Jager AdamsExcellent book for preschool & kindergarten for children that are low in PA.Active Participation : Choral read and do the clap, repeat with whisper, and repeat silent-watching heads nod.
55Onsets and Rimes Sound Blocks The teacher gives children two plain blocks.The blocks are placed in a row.The teacher says: “When I want to say tap in two parts, I touch the blocks like this.” (Touch the first block and say “/t/”; touch the second block and say “-ap”)The teacher says other words that end in “-ap.”The children touch the blocks as they say the words in two parts.Remind – It is a PA activityOnset initial consonant or consonant cluster of the wordRime vowel and consonants that follow the onset /k/ /at/ this is a harder skill for studentsAs children develop PA , they learn to recognize words in sentences and syllables in words. They also learn to divide one-syllable works into onsets and rimes.Model using the Doc camera
56Work Time Using Your Basal Strategically Using your TE find the Big Idea- Phonological Awareness .Map out the skills that are taught each day during the theme.Do the students already have this skill (data) ? Can this be a quick review ?Which students do not have the PA skill taught from the basal ?Focus explicit instruction with these students in small group.Using the basal to where your students are atDesigned for averageSticky notes# 2 demonstrate –Doc camera & basalFocus explicit instruction with these students in small group.
57Phonological Awareness rhyme, alliteration, sentence, word, onset-rime, phoneme awarenessPhoneme AwarenessAbility to hear, identify, and manipulate individual speech soundsNow let’s take a closer look at the more difficult skill of hearing, identifying, and manipulating individual speech sounds.Phoneme Segmentationscat = /s/ /k/ /ă/ /t/OrthographyLetters and letter patterns+Phoneme Blending/s/ /k/ /ă/ /t/ = scatPhonics
58Phonemic AwarenessThe awareness and understanding of the sound structure of our languageUnderstanding that spoken words are made up of sequences of individual speech sounds“cat” is composed of the sounds /k/ /a/ /t/
59Phonemic Awareness “cat” begins with the sound ____.” “cat” ends with the sound ____.”“cat” with a /h/ at the beginning becomes “____.”“hat” with a /m/ at the end becomes “____.”It involves blending, segmenting, manipulating
60What We Know from Research Phonemic awareness gives students a way to approach reading new words.Phonemic awareness helps all children to read.Phonemic awareness instruction is most effective when children are taught to use letters to represent phonemes.Phonemic awareness helps preschoolers, kindergarteners, and first graders learn to spell.Active Participation : Physical “Pick up your pencil “Underline in the first bullet : new wordssecond bullet : allthird bullet: star the whole things– so important to teach it this wayfourth bullet : spell
61Why Phonemic Awareness is Difficult Phonemes or speech soundsThere are 26 letters in the English language and approximately 40 phonemes.Sounds are represented in 250 different spelligns /f/ ph, gh, ff
62Phonemic Awareness Direct and explicit Brief (5-7 minutes) Fast paced and lively so that all students are engagedOral and auditoryPhonemic awareness is a critical part of early literacy development and is a powerful predictor of early reading success. Therefore, there is a heavy emphasis on it in the early grades, especially kindergarten and first grade.<CLICK> Students need direct and explicit instruction on identifying, segmenting, and manipulating sounds in spoken language.<CLICK> Phonemic awareness instruction need not take a great amount of classroom time. Usually 5-7 minutes per day is sufficient for students to master the concept presented in each day’s lesson.<CLICK> Teaching phonemic awareness is fast paced and lively so that all students are engaged in the activity.<CLICK> Phonemic awareness instruction is oral and auditory. Many core reading programs use puppets and hand gestures as part of instruction.<CLICK> Phonemic awareness is NOT an endless guessing game where students try to guess sounds in words. It involves directly teaching students how to identify and manipulate sounds in spoken words.<CLICK> Phonemic awareness is NOT phonics. When letters are used, it becomes a phonics lesson. However, the core reading program connects phonemic awareness to phonics instruction in most lessons because research indicates that teaching phonemic awareness along with letter-sound relationships produces better results.<CLICK> Since phonemic awareness involves manipulating oral language, flashcards and worksheets are NOT appropriate ways to practice.<CLICK> The teacher should NOT do all of the talking during phonemic awareness lessons. Students need to speak and manipulate sounds in order to become proficient.
63Explicit and Systematic Explicit instruction refers to lessons in which concepts are clearly explained and skills are clearly modeled.Systematic instruction in a logical sequence, where newly introduced skills are built on existing skills, and tasks are arranged from simplest to complex.Explicit--- the heart of good instructionSystematic– good basals should do this for youMore at risk…. The more you have to be explicit and systematic
64An Important Model I do one We do one You do one The heart of good instruction
66Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Examiner says a word; student says the sounds in the word.Score: Number of correct sound segments student says in 1 minute.
67Phonemic Awareness I’ll Say the Sounds Say It and Move It 3. Elkonian –Sound Boxes4. FistRtI---Quality Initial Instruction in the Classroom--- saves interventions-Four activities that strengthen PA– can be in addition to a basalWhat does your data show ?The amount of usage will depend on the time of year and what your data shows for your students---what does your data say
68I’ll Say the Sound Blending Sounds into Words 1. We’re going to play a say-the-word game. I’ll say the sounds. You say the word.2. Listen. aaaammmmm3. What word? am4. (Repeat with other words.)5. (If time permits, check individual students.)(Practice: man, sat, ship, trap)No Tweaking!I doWe doYou do
69Work Time Using Your Basal Strategically With your partner, use your Basal TE, to find ten words from the PA section.Practice with your partner blending these words using the technique I’ll Say the Sound.Be ready to share with your best example.No tweaking this is the way we want this done.Think theme body parts, beachBasal, voc 5 min5 min practice Kathryn & I will come around
70Say-It-and-Move-ItThis is listening and sound counting not letter recognitionModel how to use 1 finger and how to sweepVery important-otherwise some students begin to “mess around”
71Say-It-and-Move-It Model using the Doc camera I use the Road to the Code book teacher notes on pg 4Note the really important top of page 5…” move disk below the think black line…. Always building left to right. Pulling straight downStop sounds bdpt not elongated hot soundsContinuous a, mModel 1. /a/ one soundNow I’m going to sweep the disk back to the _______ .In your notes write a routine you could follow for modeling for your students.
72Work Time Using Your Basal Strategically Find ten words from your basal that would be appropriate to use for a Say-It-and-Move-It activity.With your partner, practice doing at least five words each.Be prepared to share how you might use this in your classroom when you go back.
73Sound Boxes Elkonin boxes Page 79 in Road to the Code Teach routine Arrow-sound draw arrow at bottom left to rightDemo: using various 3-4 phoneme –old workbook pages with pictures work wellBaggie of samples
74Work Time Using Your Basal Strategically Find ten words from your basal that would be appropriate to use for the sound boxes activity.With your partner, practice doing at least five words each.By table go to the overhead/document camera and teach a lesson to your table .Your table will be your students.Gather all the OH and doc camera we canBe prepared to share how you might use this in your classroom when you go back.
75Fist Segmenting Words into Sounds - Separate Segmenting 1. We’re going to say the sounds in a word.2. Fist in the air. Put up one finger for each sound.3. The word is sat. What word? sat4. First sound? /sss/ Next sound? /aaa/ Last sound? /t/5. (If time permits, check individual students.)(Practice: fan, fast, shop, with)Practice with partner
76Work Time Using Your Basal Strategically With your partner create a list of ten words from your basal that would be appropriate for segmenting at this time of year for your students.Practice with your partnerBe ready to share with your best example.No tweaking this is the way we want this done.Think theme body parts, beachBasal, voc 5 min5 min practice Kathryn & I will come around
77Explicit and Systematic PA Instruction During a lesson, target only one type of PA, such as blending or segmenting.Begin with easier activities and progress to more difficult ones.Model each activity.As soon as possible, help children make the connection between letters and sounds to read and spell words.Explicit--This is why scripting of lessons is used.Underline easier start with2 phoneme words, to 3 phoneme words, 4 phoneme wordsModel correct procedure heartGive teachers 5 letters s, m, p, t, a see how many words they can write in 30 secssam, map, mat, mats, sat, stamp, past, pat, pats, tap, tam, taps, am, as, amp, amps etcGet a big bang for your buck-get visual attached asap and start reading and writing theseReviewFew in numberExplicitly modeledSupported by concrete materials or gesturesAt risk need more explicit trainingIncorporate pa into spelling dictation.
78RTI/Differentiation- Reteach in Small Groups I do oneWe do oneYou do oneProvide opportunities to practice PA with teacher support and guidance.Integrate practice in PA throughout the curriculum and the school day.Ongoing practice
83p s a v m Alphabetic Principle Based on two parts: Alphabetic Understanding. Letters represent sounds in wordspsavmNow you are putting the sounds to the letter
84a m p Alphabetic Principle Phonological Recoding. Letter sounds can be blended together and knowledge of letter -sound associations can be used to read/decode words.amp
85When Should the Alphabetic Principle be Taught? PreschoolFamiliarity with alphabetKindergartenLetter sounds, beginning blendingFirst gradeLetter sounds, blends and decodes simple words fluently, reads grade level material accuratelyChange familiarity to mastery
86Why Alphabetic Principle? Letter-sound knowledge is prerequisite to word identification.A primary difference between good and poor readers is the ability to use letter-sound correspondences to decode words.Letter-sound knowledge can be taught.Teaching the alphabetic principle leads to gains in reading acquisition/achievement.
87LETRS Module 7 CD-ROM Presenter's Kit What Kind of Phonics?4/15/2017What is “systematic”?preplanned skill sequenceprogresses from easier to more difficult (scaffolding)What is “explicit”?The teacher:explains and modelsgives guided practicewatches and gives corrective feedbackplans extended practice on skills, as needed by individualsapplies skill to reading words, sentences, books• With participants, outline these seven principles of systematic and explicit instruction that guide students through the patterns and connections between spoken and written language.1. Teacher models (“I do one”).2. Teacher gives guided practice to students (“We do one”).3. Students try (“Now you do one”).4. Teacher gives corrective feedback.5. Teacher allows time for independent practice.6. Teacher provides continual review and application of what has been taught.7. Teacher evaluates what students have learned (not satisfied with simply having taught the lesson).To Summarize:• Percentage of time to devote to alphabetic, phonics, and word-study components:‣ 40% of instructional time in first grade.‣ 20% of instructional time in second grade.Effective lessons in systematic, explicit phonics also:‣ Provide continual review and application of what has been taught.‣ Evaluate what the student has learned.• It’s important to not simply assume that what you have just taught was learned; rather, evaluate if it was actually learned.
88Explicit and Systematic Instruction Teach frequently-used letters and soundsIntroduce only a few letter-sound correspondences at a timeModel and present each individual letter and its most common sound.Begin with letter-sound correspondences that can be combined to make words children can decode, read, and understand.
89Effective Teachers Vary Time and Emphasis on Phonics LETRS Module 7 CD-ROM Presenter's Kit4/15/2017Effective Teachers Vary Time and Emphasis on PhonicsTeachers rated as most effective overall.Spent more time on foundational skillsEspecially when students’ entry-level skills were lowVaried the emphasis of their instruction, according to the needs of their students.• Review with participants that the University of Texas research data also showed that teachers who were rated as being the most effective overall:1. Varied the emphasis of their instruction according to the needs of their students.2. Spent more time teaching foundational skills, especially when students’ entry-level skills were low.In Summary:• There was no uniform prescription for achieving instructional “balance”:‣ The amount of instructional time spent on the components varied with teachers’ skills and needs of the students in phonological, orthographic, word meaning, and contextual language domains.• All components of reading are important from the beginning but must be given appropriate emphasis so that critical skills are mastered.• Teachers must design reading instruction to accommodate stages of reading development and the component skills most important at each point on the developmental continuumAccording to research conducted through the University of Texas, .
90Structure of EnglishPhoneme: a speech sound that combines with others in a language system to make words; English has phonemes.Consonant Phonemes: there are about 25 consonant phonemes.Vowel Phonemes: there are about 18 vowel phonemes.Consonant phonemes : 18 are a single sound /d/ /t/7 are represented by 2 letters /ch/ /sh/ /th/think /Th/ this /hw/ what /ng/ /zh/ televisionVowel Phoneme a,e,i,o,u used singly and in combination including r controlled about 18Copy and paste in pag 23 from CORE
93P Teaching Letter Names I do oneWe do oneYou do onePPoint to the card and say: This is the letter P. It has a straight line down and then goes up and around. With your finger, trace the letter from top to bottom and then back up and around. Say: This is the letter P. What is the name of this letter ?Repeat procedure with at least two otherexamples, pointing to the letter and tracing thelines.Display an alphabet card/ basal for the upper case P .Point to the cardI do oneYou do one you do one you do one
94Alphabet Names and Forms LETRS Module 7 CD-ROM Presenter's Kit4/15/2017Alphabet Names and FormsABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZAlphabet Arc (Neuhaus Education Center) helps students learn letter recognition and sequencing.While teaching a new phoneme, reinforce the letter names and forms so the student can associate the sound with its letter.• Explain to participants that research shows that fluency at naming letters along with phonemic awareness are the two strongest predictors of early reading achievement. Many letter names contain the sounds that they represent.Fluency Is Key‣ It’s not just whether a child knows the alphabet, but rather how automatically he or she can name letters that counts.‣ Lower-level processes must be automatic to free up attention for higher-level processing.At this point in our lesson, we are NOT directly working on fluency of letter-naming, a skill that is assumed to be present before teaching phonics.For more information on techniques for teaching letter names, see Chapter 4 in Judith Birsh’s (1999) book, Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills.‣ Chapter 4 was written by Kay Allen (Executive Director, Neuhaus Education Center in Houston) and Marilyn Beckwith.‣ This chapter gives activities using the Alphabet Arc for developing a child’s letter recognition, naming, and sequencing skills.• When we teach a lesson to introduce a new phoneme, we will connect the phoneme to the letter.LIMIT THE SET OF LETTERS YOU ARE TEACHING. THESE LETTERS SHOULD BE THE SAME SET OF LETTERS YOU ARE TEACHING WITH THE LETTER CARDS.Birsh, J. (Ed.) (1999). Multisensory teaching of basic language skills. Baltimore: Paul Brookes Publishing.So how do we help children learn the letter names and soundsAlphabet Mats and Alphabet Arcs help children learn letter names and the sequence of letters in the alphabet
96Letter Characteristics Shapes that are visually similarB-D, B-P, E-F, F-P, G-O,K-X, M-N, M-W, O-Q,O-U,P-R,U-V, V-Yb-d, b-p, b-q, d-g, d-q, e-a, g-q, g-y, i-j,i-l,k-x, m-n, n-c, n-h, p-q, u-v, u-w, u-y, w-m, y-vCc, Kk, Pp, Ss, Uu, Vv, Ww, Xx, Zz,The characteristics of letters can affect the students’ learning of letter names1st bullet----Letters whose form shares 50 % or more strokes2nd bullet---Letters whose overall form is id or similar when rotated, flipped, or reversed3rd bulletLetter pair whose forms are almost id in upper and lowerUppercase letters tend to be learned before lowercaseLast group especially likely to be confusedWhen introducing a
97Write out the sounds included within each of the following letter names A /a/ B /b/ /e/ CD E FG H IJ K LM N OP Q RS T UV W XY ZThe Novice Alphabetic Phase, Letter Names and Letter Sounds ActivityUse this with participants who are hearing Linea Enhri’s stages of reading development for the first time, and/or with those who are unsure of the sounds of the English language; it provides practice with sound segmentation and works best with slides #30 and 31, p. 36–37, The Novice Alphabetic Phase.Provide a Letter Names and Letter Sounds Activities Handout for each participant with each of the letters of the alphabet listed (Found in Handout File of Presenter’s Kit Module 1 CD-ROM). You may use the following PowerPoint slides to follow along with them. Ask participants to work individually or in pairs to list the sounds within each letter’s name. The first two are already done.
98How did you do? A /a/ B /b/ /e/ C /s/ /e/ D /d/, /e/ E /e/ F /e/ /f/ G /j/ /e/ H /a/ /ch/ I / i/J /j/ /a/ K /k/ / a/ L /e/ /l/M /e/ /m/ N /e/ /n/ O /o/P /p/ /e/ Q /k/ /y/ /oo/ R /ar/S /e/ /s/ T /t/ /e/ U /y/ /oo/V /v/,/e/ W /d/ /u/ /b/ /l/ /y/ /oo/X /e/ /k/ /s/ Y /w/ / i/ Z /z/ /e/Have participants check their answers.Initial sounds in letter names print b on board what is the name ? Yes b Listen as I say b a sound at a time /b/ /e/ Now you say it one sound at a time /b/ /e/ .The sound the letter b stands for is the first sound in it name /b/ How can you remember the sounds (It’s the first sound in the letter name)
99Letter KnowledgeThe learning of letter sounds is quite different from the learning of letter shapes and names.Students need more time to learn the sounds of some letters than others.(Treiman and Kessler 2003)Names and shapes largely arbitrary –no choice but to memorize the links between letter shapes and names. One way is to help young students learn and recall letter shapes is through handwriting practice.The names of the letters contain the sound that the letter represents The name of the letter b contains /b/ other letters that may be easier d, j, k, p, t, v, z CORE pg 88Only 2 that totally don’t h & w ----y is considered because it stands for long/i/Pg 94 therefore the common practice of sopending the same amount of insturctional time on each letter—letter of the week approach –may not be effective learn b as opposed to w
100Letter-Sound Associations - How? Alphabet Chart Vowel ChartBe my choir /a/ long /a/ letter sound letter name
101Letter Combinations Consonant blends Consonant digraphs Vowel combinationsConsonant blends are the combined sounds of 2 or 3 consonants. Each letter retains its common sound. Students learn how to blend the sounds together, rather than learning one new sound.bl in the word blue spl in splate the ft in left and the nt in antA consonant digraph is a combination of consonants that represent one unique sound such a sh in the word shopVowel combinations ( or vowel pairs) are two adjacent vowels in the same syllable that represent a single speech sound.Ea meatOy boyOw howThe vowel pair ou soup, could, and shout.The generalization that the first vowel is usually long and the second vowel is silent is only reliable approximately half of the time.On paper write blend cons diagraphs vowel combinations --give example and then handout %
103Letter Sound PracticeAlphabet books provide an excellent opportunity for students to hear, say, and see the alphabet. ( Not explicit )ABC ChartsDVD’sComputer ProgramsNot explicit- informalSinging, reciting alphabet rhymes, playing alphabet gamesNeed to do however is it going to fix your high at risk ?
104Using a T Graph Sorting /m/ & /s/ Sounds There are many ways of using a T graph.First demonstrate on an overhead to the whole class.Next identify students that need further instruction and pull back for small group.Finally as a review use as seat work or in a center . (this is not a coloring time)This activity could also be a Closed or Open Sort.
105Work Time Sorting with T graph Look at basal to see what sounds are being taught-use last weeks sounds to provide additional practice with the soundsWith your partner think of other sorting activities that you could possibly use before or after this sortBe ready to share an ideaCut only the pictures that go with sounds you will be using
106Letter Naming- Automaticity P M T A m s S a t oChildren generally learn the upper case letters first because they are more distinguishable then lower case. However it is the lower case that we need for reading.Sing abc songCorrective feedback -incorrect model correct say name then what is the name of this leter tap under the letter as students respond-then back up 2 letters and continueLet’s all practice saying the names of the letters together. When I tap under the letter, I want everyone to say the letter name aloud.Whole group , small group, 1-1
107Decoding of Regular Words As soon as sounds are learned, incorporate the sounds into words.Model blending of sounds into words.Provide an adequate amount of practice on decoding words.A few consonants and vowel --
108Sound by Sound Blending LETRS Module 7 CD-ROM Presenter's Kit4/15/2017Sound by Sound Blendingrat188.8.131.52.5.Write r and say /r/.Write a and say /a/.Slide fingers under ra and say /ra/.Write t and say /t/.Slide finders under rat and say /rat/.Say “The word is rat.” and use it in a sentence.• Additive blending can be used with students who need support in remembering the sounds that are blended to make a word. Follow the steps to illustrate this blending technique.• You may choose to use the overhead in the Overhead Masters folder of the LETRS Module 7 Presenter’s Kit to illustrate this technique as you work through additive blending. The overhead is more realistic, as you can start with a blank page.Show video CORE
109Work Time Using Your Basal Strategically Create a list of 20 words using the sounds you have already taught in your basal.2. Watch Video: Blending RoutinesSound- by- soundWith your partner design a lesson to instruct your students on blending routines.4. Be ready to demonstrate your lesson to the groupCheck what vowel and letters are introduced by now.MAKE SURE TO HAVE THEM SHARE OUT
1101.Decodable Book Blending and decoding the sounds in words Kathryn PSF to ORFUsing printed HM booklets
111Decodable Books Majority of the words are : linked to phonics instruction usingsound/spellingspelling patterns that have been taughtsome previously taught irregular sightwords, including high frequency wordsThese short books or passages provide beginning reader with opportunities to apply what they are learning and to build automaticity, confidence, and fluency.Reading this type of text is an intervening step between students’ acquisition of phonics knowledge and their ability to read authentic literature.Should be comprehensibleThink about—what you have already introduced
1121.Letter BoxesUsed the Elkonin box activities to develop phonemic awareness, students segment words into sounds using chips to represent the sounds.Elkonin boxes can be also used to help bridge connections between phonemes and graphemes.SpellingWritingDemo sounding as a reviewDemo the change to letters : CvCCVC e like, makeCVVC boat, sleep
113Sight wordsSight words are words that are recognized immediately, whether it is a regular or irregular word.The ultimate goal is for all words, regular and irregular, to be read automatically with little effort.Commonly occurring : Dolch listFrequent words in literature: FryIrregular words : red, heart, tricky
114Increasing Sight Words Index cardsRead and reread text that contain the words, decodable textWrite sentencesWord WallsHandout 14 TRADecodable booksResources A-ZGenie Books
115Irregular WordsContain some letters that do not represent their most commonly used soundsTend to be high frequency words that students encounter often in their reading and writingCan be partially decodedregular words tend to be high frequency words that students encounter often in their reading and writing like have and wasMost irregular words, the consonants offer sufficient support so the words can be partially decoded ex said fromPg 72 LETRS Words such as said, they, was, done, of, and the are often called sight words. They are treated as wholes rather than sound blending. Well designed programs introduce them a few at a time, and children practice them daily until the words are learned for both reading and spelling. They are called “Tricky” words “heart” words “red” heartsMemory Trace-KathrynPg 16 TRA
116Increasing Sight Words DictationBy writingThink Pair ShareWhip around pass
117Letter-Sound Associations Review Provide explicit instruction to introduce letter-sound associations.Teach letter-sound associations to a high level of mastery.Provide cumulative review. - Eternal ReviewP remember how we taught the letter P. Remember alphabet books are not explicit instruction, but implicit.