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Published byRoderick Butler Modified about 1 year ago

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Behavioral Comparison of Process Models Based on Canonically Reduced Event Structures Abel Armas-Cervantes Paolo Baldan Marlon Dumas Luciano García-Bañuelos BPM

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Business process models BPM Start event Activity XOR gateway AND gateway End event Run

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Business process models. Runs BPM

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Spot the difference! BPM Not structural differences

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Spot the difference! BPM It is possible to execute task Monitor delivery right after Handle bank transfer in model 1 but not in model 2.

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Desiderata Diagnostics: Differences explained with intuitive statements. E.g., – “It is possible to execute task A after B in model 1 but not in model 2.” Semantics: Well-accepted notion of equivalence – Our choice: Configuration equivalence (True-concurrency spectrum) BPM

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Event structures Event structures (ES) as the behavioral representations – Events: occurrences of actions – Relations over the events: behavior dependencies observed between pairs of events Prime event structures (PES) – Three relations: conflict, causality and concurrency

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Example PES A B C A B C D E F G F D D E E G A BC DE G FD G E A BC DE G FD G E C G E

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Prime vs. Asymmetric event structures BPM Prime Event Structure (PES)Asymmetric Event Structure (AES) Reduction* *Reduction of event structures under hp-bisimulation

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Another example

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Reduction and canonicity Fist contribution: Deterministic order defining a canonical representation Elements: – Lexicographic order of event labels – Size of the set of events to be merged –... not enough! BPM Not canonical

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Deterministic folding Compute combinable set of events Folding order 1.Lexicographic order on the event’s label 2.Size of the set of events to merge 3.Lexicographic order w.r.t. the canonical labels BPM

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Cyclic process models = infinite number of events

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Our unfolding Second contribution: Unfolding technique to capture all causal dependencies between tasks – We can distinguish repetitive behavior from non-repetitive BPM

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Comparator BPM Comparator AES2AES1 Finite representation Canonical Reduction Finite representation Canonical Reduction

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Comparator(2) Error correcting graph matching techniques for finding similar behavior. – Isomorphism would imply equivalence BPM

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Comparator(3) Mismatching relations between matched events – In model 2, there is a state after the execution of task c where d and c are mutually exclusive; whereas in model 1, there is a state after the execution of b where c can occur before d, or c can be skipped Mismatching repetitive behavior – Task b may occur 0 or more times in model 2; whereas in model 1, it occurs at most once Unmatched events – There is an additional occurrence of task b after c in model 2 BPM

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Summary Technique for a behavioral comparison of process models using AES – Canonical folding of AES – Finite representation using Petri net unfoldings Characterization of cyclic behavior according to task repetitions – Propose a comparison technique of AES BPM

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BPM

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Canonical graph label Compute the adjacency matrix of the graph and all its possible permutations Select the largest lexicographical exemplar of the string representation of the permutations – Nauty, a tool to compute canonical graph labeling BPM abc a010 b001 c … bca b010 c000 a

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Complete prefix unfolding Truncating techniques based on markings – McMillan and Esparza et al They do not capture all possible causal dependencies BPM

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Current limitations Silent transitions can lead to different prefix unfoldings, even though the processes are equivalent BPM

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