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Jorge Muñoz-Gama Josep Carmona Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (Barcelona, Spain) A fresh look at Precision in Process Conformance

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Outline 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance2 Process Mining and Process Conformance Motivation Approach General Approach Implementation Results Extensions Future work Conclusions

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Process Mining 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance3 *

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Conformance Dimensions 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance4 FitnessPrecisionGeneralizationStructure How much of the observed behavior is captured by the model Minimal structure which clearly reflect the behavior Models with minimal behavior to represent accurately the log Overly precise models which overfit the log

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Outline 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance5 Process Mining and Process Conformance Motivation Approach General Approach Implementation Results Extensions Future work Conclusions

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Related Work 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance6 Precision in the literature Most related work Rozinat et al. Information System 33 (2008) Metric for Precision in Petri Nets Computation of Follows and Precedes relations (Always, Never, Sometimes) of Model and Log. Measurement based on discrepancies in Sometimes relations Model relations require a model space state exploration Coverability Graph

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Motivation 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance7 Goals and Requirements Precision Dimension Petri Nets Avoid the complete state space exploration Effort needed to obtain an accurate model Fine-level precision Locate the precision inconsistencies

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Process Conformance and Refinement 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance8 Petri Net A B D A C D Event Log MDT ETC Precision Metric Conformance (Precision) A C B D Locate the inconsistencies Measure the inconsistencies

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Outline 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance9 Process Mining and Process Conformance Motivation Approach General Approach Implementation Results Extensions Future work Conclusions

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General Idea: Escaping Edges 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance10 Model Behavior Log Behavior Model Behavior Escaping Edges

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Conformance Route Map 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance11 Model States Log States Traversal MDT Metric A C B D A B D A C D Petri Net Event Log

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Log and Model States 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance12 Log Incorporate state information in the log (Aalst et al. Software and Systems Modeling, 2009) Past, Unlimited and Sequence Model Markings of the Petri Net

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Model States and Mapping 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance13 Not all the reachable markings (could be infinite) Only Markings with a Log State mapped on Log and Model States Mapping i.e., reached marking after replay state prefix A E D C B p1 p2p3 A B E p4 s1 p1 s2 p2 s3 p3 s4 p4 p … n p1 p2 p3 p4 p5 Markings not explored

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Log-guided Traversal 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance14 Log-guided Traversal of Model Behavior Allowed Tasks : i.e., actions enabled in that moment Reflected Tasks : i.e., actions really executed (thus, annotated in the log) A E D C B p1 p2p3 p4 A E D C B p1 p2p3 p4 A B E A C E BCDBCD A B E A C E BCBC

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Traversal (2) 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance15 Escaping Edges : i.e., enabled actions not executed Precision discrepancies A E D C B p1 p2p3p4 A B E A C E BCDBCD BCBC D

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Precision Metric 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance16 Take into account the Escaping Edges Between 0 (imprecise) and 1 (precise) More frequent traces, more weight in the metric Independent of Structural dimension Global precision Localizability A P H Z Q I A H I Z A P Q Z

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Minimal Disconformant Traces (MDT) 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance17 Localizability of precision inconsistencies i.e., Minimal traces indicating where the model starts to deviate from the log Algorithm to compute all MDT using Escaping Edges Refinement Analysis Precision MDT A E A B E C D P Q A D C B Refined Petri Net

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Outline 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance18 Process Mining and Process Conformance Motivation Approach General Approach Implementation Results Extensions Future work Conclusions

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Implementation 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance19 ProM 6 Framework ETConformance Plug-In

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Outline 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance20 Process Mining and Process Conformance Motivation Approach General Approach Implementation Results Extensions Future work Conclusions

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Results 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance21

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Results (2) 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance22

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Outline 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance23 Process Mining and Process Conformance Motivation Approach General Approach Implementation Results Extensions Future work Conclusions Invisible Tasks Duplicate Tasks States as Markings Non fitting done in progress

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Invisible Tasks 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance24 A H I C B p3 p4 A C Which Sequence? A H C ? A I C ? INDETERMINISM (Transitions associated with no event)

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Invisible Tasks (2) 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance25 Invisible Coverability Graph Solutions Union of Enabled Lazy Invisibles * One path only Shortest Invisible Path * Inv 1 Inv 3 Inv 2 A,B A,D C A,C A A D D B B X X X X C C X X *Rozinat et al. Information System 33 (2008)

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Duplicate Tasks 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance26 Which Task? B ? INDETERMINISM Solutions e.g. Look-ahead A B B D C... A B C... (Several Transitions associated with the same event)

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Variant: States as Markings 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance27 States as Prefix States as Markings A B C A B C A B C CB p1 p2p3 2 Escaping Edges NO Escaping Edges

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Variant: Non fitting models 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance28 Symmetric to the Escaping Edges (Ee) Log Escaping Edges (LEe): The points where the log deviates from the model Fitness instead of Precision Model Behavior Log Behavior Model Behavior Escaping Edges Log Escaping Edges

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Outline 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance29 Process Mining and Process Conformance Motivation Approach General Approach Implementation Results Extensions Future work Conclusions

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Future Work: Refinement 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance30 A C B D Petri Net Refined Petri Net A D C B Event Log A E A B E MDT A E A B E B H J G

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Concurrencies in the model but not in the log Break the model concurrency with a restriction, e.g. a place Structural Concurrency Best effort overapproximation for general Petri Nets Exact for live and bounded Free Choice systems Polynomial Algorithm Kovalyov and Esparza, Proc. Intl. Workshop on Discrete Event Sytems, 1996 Future Work: Breaking Concurrencies 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance31 A B C D A D C B

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Supervisory Control 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance32 Supervisory Control in Process Mining Santos et al. Supervisory Control Service (2010) Supervisor Model MDT Abstraction Refined Model

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Conclusions 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance33 New technique for precision between Petri nets and Log. Avoids complete models state space exploration. Metric based on the effort needed to obtain a precise model. MDT, indicating the points where the model starts to deviates from the log. Approach implemented as plug-in of ProM 6.

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Thank You 15 Sep 2010Precision in Process Conformance34 Thank You for Your Attention

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