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Section 3. Emergency Response. Causes of Shock Most common causes: Internal and external blood loss. Fluid loss from vomiting, sweating, diarrhea or burns.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 3. Emergency Response. Causes of Shock Most common causes: Internal and external blood loss. Fluid loss from vomiting, sweating, diarrhea or burns."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 3. Emergency Response

2 Causes of Shock Most common causes: Internal and external blood loss. Fluid loss from vomiting, sweating, diarrhea or burns. Allergic reactions. Call EMS if you suspect shock. T1-3

3 Shock Prevention should be started with: 4 Broken bones 4 Serious burns 4 Bleeding 4 Head, neck or back injuries T2-3

4 Signs & Symptoms of Shock Confused or light- headed Sleepy or losing consciousness Weakness Severe pain or swelling Agitated or restless Pale, cool or clammy skin Rapid, weak pulse Large amount of bleeding Nausea & vomiting T3-3

5 First-aid for Shock  Wear gloves.  Perform the Emergency Action Principles.  DO NOT MOVE if head, neck or back injury is suspected.  Have child lie down and elevate feet 8-12”.  Keep child warm, but not hot.  Loosen tight clothing.  Call EMS.  Contact parents/guardians.  Treat cause of shock if known.  DO NOT give anything by mouth. T4-3

6 Bleeding First-aid  Wear gloves.  Apply pressure with hand using gauze pads. If needed, add more pads. DO NOT remove used ones.  Elevate injured area if possible unless it causes further injury.  Severe bleeding can lead to shock. Call EMS.  DO NOT USE A TOURNIQUET.  After bleeding is controlled, bandage wound firmly but do not cut off circulation. T5-3

7 First-aid for Nosebleeds u Wear gloves. u Place child sitting down with head leaning slightly forward. Do NOT lean child backward or tilt head backward. u Do NOT have child blow, wipe or rub the nose. u Ask the child to breathe through mouth. u If blood is flowing, pinch nostrils shut for minutes. Apply ice to nose. u If bleeding does not stop in 15 minutes, contact parents/guardians and seek medical attention. T6-3

8 Learning CPR is Important! T7-3

9 Causes of Breathing Emergencies Ü Choking Ü Electric Shock Ü Near Drowning Ü Head Injuries Ü Poisoning Ü Asthma Ü Severe Allergic Reactions T8-3

10 Choking & Suffocation Hazards Left in high chairs unsupervised. Sliding boards by drawstrings on coats Rattles around necks. Ribbons/strings on pacifiers. Drapery/appliance cords near infants. Toys small enough to lodge in child’s airway. Toy boxes with drop lids. Space between slats of cribs, banisters, or play equipment. Large pieces of food. Water, even a small amount. Diaper bags/plastic bags near cribs or within reach of child. T9-3

11 Obstructed Airway (Choking) T10-3

12 Examples of Choking Hazards T11-3

13 Examples of Choking Hazards T12-3

14 Prevention of Choking/Suffocation Supervise children when eating and in high chairs. Check floor regularly for objects that may cause choking. Don’t prop bottles. Dispose of any plastic bags in child- proof containers. Have only age-appropriate toys within children’s reach. T13a-3

15 Prevention of Choking/Suffocation (continued) Give age-appropriate foods. Avoid feeding round foods such as hot dogs and hard candy. Encourage children to eat slowly and to chew and swallow before drinking. No strings or ribbons around children’s necks. NEVER leave young children alone with water. T13b-3

16 Signs of Breathing Emergency Wheezing (high pitched sound) Coughing Can’t speak/can’t cough Flaring nostrils Clutching throat/wild gestures Blueness around face Excessive drooling Agitation Loss of consciousness (late sign) Sitting up, leaning forward. Head bobbing with each breath. T14-3

17 First-aid When Child is Getting SOME Air Shout for help and send someone to call EMS. Stay calm and try to calm the child. Allow child to choose position of comfort. Stay with child and watch closely for worsening of symptoms. T15-3

18 Rescue Breathing (Child) 1. Send someone to call EMS. 2. Keep airway open. Pinch nose shut. Give 2 breaths. 3. If air won’t go in, retilt head. Give 2 more breaths. 4. Check pulse. If pulse, but no breathing, give rescue breathing: 1 every 3 seconds. 5. Check breathing and pulse every minute. 6. Continue as long as child is not breathing or until help arrives. 7. If no pulse, give CPR. T16-3 Open AIRWAY. Look, Listen & Feel for BREATH. IF child is NOT breathing:

19 Differences with Infants Open airway using one finger to lift chin. T17-3 Check pulse by placing 2-3 fingers on inside of upper arm, between elbow & shoulder. Seal lips tightly around mouth & NOSE to form a seal. Blow less to make chest rise & fall. Blow slowly & watch for chest to rise.

20 Differences with Adults Give 1 breath every 5 seconds (about 12 per minute). May need to blow more air to make the chest rise and fall. Blow slowly and watch for the chest to rise. T18-3

21 Choking : Conscious Child or Adult Ask “Are you choking?” If child can’t make any sound, continue. Stand behind child & place your fist against stomach, just above navel. Grasp fist with other hand. Give 5 quick upward thrusts. Continue until object is coughed up or child becomes unconscious. If child becomes unconscious, follow recommendations for unconscious child. T19-3

22 Unconscious Child or Adult Ù Open Airway. Check Breathing. If child is not breathing, give 2 breaths. Ù If air will not go in, re-tilt head. Give 2 more breaths. Ù If air still won’t go in, give 5 abdominal thrusts. Ù If object is seen in mouth, sweep it out with finger. Ù Re-tilt head and give 2 breaths. If air goes in, give rescue breathing. Ù Continue to do abdominal thrusts and check child’s mouth until air goes in. T20-3

23 Conscious & Unconscious Infant Ù Position infant face down. Ù Give 5 back blows. Ù Put infant face up on forearm. Ù Using 2-3 fingers, give 5 chest thrusts in center of breastbone. T21-3 Ù Lift jaw & tongue. Sweep out object with finger if you see it. Ù Tilt head. Try to give 2 breaths. Ù Continue until object is coughed up, breaths go in or infant breathes on own.

24 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Background Sudden and unexplained death of infant under one year. Death usually occurs during sleep. Strikes about 5,000 babies each year in U.S. NOT the same as infant choking or suffocating on an object. Baby may seem perfectly healthy. T22-3

25 SIDS Risk Reduction 4 Place infants on their backs or in a side-lying position in cribs. Do not place on stomach for sleep, UNLESS baby’s doctor says to 4 Use firm mattresses in cribs. Do NOT place soft or fluffy material under infant or near head 4 Keep baby room comfortably warm, but NOT hot 4 Don’t smoke around children If infant stops breathing, perform rescue breathing and call EMS. T23-3


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