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End Show Slide 1 of 51 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology.

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Presentation on theme: "End Show Slide 1 of 51 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology."— Presentation transcript:

1 End Show Slide 1 of 51 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology

2 End Show Slide 2 of 51 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis

3 End Show Slide 3 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Inside a Chloroplast In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts. Plant Plant cells Chloroplast

4 End Show Slide 4 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Inside a Chloroplast Chloroplasts contain thylakoids—saclike photosynthetic membranes. Chloroplast Single thylakoid

5 End Show Slide 5 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Inside a Chloroplast Thylakoids are arranged in stacks known as grana. A singular stack is called a granum. Granum Chloroplast

6 End Show Slide 6 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Inside a Chloroplast Proteins in the thylakoid membrane organize chlorophyll and other pigments into clusters called photosystems, which are the light-collecting units of the chloroplast. Chloroplast Photosystems

7 End Show Slide 7 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Inside a Chloroplast Chloroplast Light H2OH2O O2O2 CO 2 Sugars NADP + ADP + P Calvin Cycle Light- dependent reactions Calvin cycle

8 End Show Slide 8 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Electron Carriers When electrons in chlorophyll absorb sunlight, the electrons gain a great deal of energy. Cells use electron carriers to transport these high- energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules.

9 End Show Slide 9 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Electron Carriers One carrier molecule is NADP +. Electron carriers, such as NADP +, transport electrons. NADP + accepts and holds 2 high-energy electrons along with a hydrogen ion (H + ). This converts the NADP + into NADPH.

10 End Show Slide 10 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions The light-dependent reactions require light. The light-dependent reactions produce oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP + into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH.

11 End Show Slide 11 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions

12 End Show Slide 12 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Photosystem II Light-Dependent Reactions Photosynthesis begins when pigments in photosystem II absorb light, increasing their energy level.

13 End Show Slide 13 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions Photosystem II These high-energy electrons are passed on to the electron transport chain. Electron carriers High-energy electron

14 End Show Slide 14 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions Photosystem II 2H 2 O Enzymes on the thylakoid membrane break water molecules into: Electron carriers High-energy electron

15 End Show Slide 15 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions Photosystem II 2H 2 O hydrogen ions oxygen atoms energized electrons + O 2 Electron carriers High-energy electron

16 End Show Slide 16 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions Photosystem II 2H 2 O + O 2 The energized electrons from water replace the high-energy electrons that chlorophyll lost to the electron transport chain. High-energy electron

17 End Show Slide 17 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions Photosystem II 2H 2 O As plants remove electrons from water, oxygen is left behind and is released into the air. + O 2 High-energy electron

18 End Show Slide 18 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions Photosystem II 2H 2 O The hydrogen ions left behind when water is broken apart are released inside the thylakoid membrane. + O 2 High-energy electron

19 End Show Slide 19 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions Photosystem II 2H 2 O Energy from the electrons is used to transport H + ions from the stroma into the inner thylakoid space. + O 2

20 End Show Slide 20 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions Photosystem II 2H 2 O High-energy electrons move through the electron transport chain from photosystem II to photosystem I. + O 2 Photosystem I

21 End Show Slide 21 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions 2H 2 O Pigments in photosystem I use energy from light to re-energize the electrons. + O 2 Photosystem I

22 End Show Slide 22 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions 2H 2 O NADP + then picks up these high-energy electrons, along with H + ions, and becomes NADPH. + O 2 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

23 End Show Slide 23 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions 2H 2 O As electrons are passed from chlorophyll to NADP +, more H + ions are pumped across the membrane. + O 2 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

24 End Show Slide 24 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions 2H 2 O Soon, the inside of the membrane fills up with positively charged hydrogen ions, which makes the outside of the membrane negatively charged. + O 2 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

25 End Show Slide 25 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions 2H 2 O The difference in charges across the membrane provides the energy to make ATP + O 2 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

26 End Show Slide 26 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions 2H 2 O H + ions cannot cross the membrane directly. + O 2 ATP synthase 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

27 End Show Slide 27 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions 2H 2 O The cell membrane contains a protein called ATP synthase that allows H + ions to pass through it + O 2 ATP synthase 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

28 End Show Slide 28 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions 2H 2 O As H + ions pass through ATP synthase, the protein rotates. + O 2 ATP synthase 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

29 End Show Slide 29 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions 2H 2 O As it rotates, ATP synthase binds ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP. + O 2 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2 ATP synthase ADP

30 End Show Slide 30 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Light-Dependent Reactions 2H 2 O Because of this system, light-dependent electron transport produces not only high-energy electrons but ATP as well. + O 2 ATP synthase ADP 2 NADP + 2 NADPH 2

31 End Show Slide 31 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Calvin Cycle What is the Calvin cycle?

32 End Show Slide 32 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Calvin Cycle The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars. Because the Calvin cycle does not require light, these reactions are also called the light-independent reactions.

33 End Show Slide 33 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Calvin Cycle Six carbon dioxide molecules enter the cycle from the atmosphere and combine with six 5-carbon molecules. CO 2 Enters the Cycle

34 End Show Slide 34 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Calvin Cycle The result is twelve 3-carbon molecules, which are then converted into higher-energy forms.

35 End Show Slide 35 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Calvin Cycle The energy for this conversion comes from ATP and high-energy electrons from NADPH. 12 NADPH ADP 12 NADP + Energy Input

36 End Show Slide 36 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Calvin Cycle Two of twelve 3-carbon molecules are removed from the cycle. Energy Input 12 NADPH ADP 12 NADP +

37 End Show Slide 37 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Calvin Cycle The molecules are used to produce sugars, lipids, amino acids and other compounds. 12 NADPH ADP 12 NADP + 6-Carbon sugar produced Sugars and other compounds

38 End Show Slide 38 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Calvin Cycle The 10 remaining 3-carbon molecules are converted back into six 5-carbon molecules, which are used to begin the next cycle. 12 NADPH ADP 12 NADP + 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated Sugars and other compounds 6 6 ADP

39 End Show Slide 39 of The Reactions of Photosynthesis Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall The Calvin Cycle The two sets of photosynthetic reactions work together. The light-dependent reactions trap sunlight energy in chemical form. The light-independent reactions use that chemical energy to produce stable, high- energy sugars from carbon dioxide and water.

40 End Show - or - Continue to: Click to Launch: Slide 40 of 51 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 8-3

41 End Show Slide 41 of 51 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 8-3 In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside the a.thylakoids. b.chloroplasts. c.photosystems. d.chlorophyll.

42 End Show Slide 42 of 51 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 8-3 Energy to make ATP in the chloroplast comes most directly from a.hydrogen ions flowing through an enzyme in the thylakoid membrane. b.transfer of a phosphate from ADP. c.electrons moving through the electron transport chain. d.electrons transferred directly from NADPH.

43 End Show Slide 43 of 51 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 8-3 NADPH is produced in light-dependent reactions and carries energy in the form of a.ATP. b.high-energy electrons. c.low-energy electrons. d.ADP.

44 End Show Slide 44 of 51 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 8-3 What is another name for the Calvin cycle? a.light-dependent reactions b.light-independent reactions c.electron transport chain d.photosynthesis

45 End Show Slide 45 of 51 Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall 8-3 Which of the following factors does NOT directly affect photosynthesis? a.wind b.water supply c.temperature d.light intensity

46 END OF SECTION


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