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Chapter 2 Systems Techniques and Documentation.. Presentation Outline I.Systems Techniques II.Flowcharting Techniques III.System Technique Symbols IV.The.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Systems Techniques and Documentation.. Presentation Outline I.Systems Techniques II.Flowcharting Techniques III.System Technique Symbols IV.The."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Systems Techniques and Documentation.

2 Presentation Outline I.Systems Techniques II.Flowcharting Techniques III.System Technique Symbols IV.The Use of Systems Techniques How does this system work?

3 I. Systems Techniques Systems techniques are tools used in analysis, design, and documentation of system and subsystem relationships. A.Flowcharting B.Logical Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) C.Charting Techniques D.Narrative Techniques E.Resource Utilization Analysis F.Decision Analysis Techniques

4 A. Flowcharting A flowchart is a symbolic diagram that shows the data flow and sequence of operations in a system. Read Record Decision Process 1 Process 2 Output

5 B. Logical Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) The intent of using DFDs is to separate clearly the logical process of systems analysis from the physical process of systems design. The systems analyst provides a logical description to the systems designer/programmer, who then designs the physical specification.. A systems analyst often acts as the communication link between users of a system and the programmers/systems support staff who will physically design the system to meet the user needs.

6 C. Charting Techniques Hierarchy chart breaking down processing tasks into modules. See Figure 2-6 on page 38. IPO (Input-Process- Output) chart describing the input- process-output requirements of each module. See Figure 2-5 on page 38. HIPO charts consist of two segments.

7 D. Narrative Techniques Narrative techniques are often particularly useful in the fact finding stage of systems analysis. Various techniques include: 1.In depth and structured interviews 2.Open-ended and closed-ended questionnaires 3.Document reviews

8 E. Resource Utilization Analysis Work measurement involves techniques used to identify tasks, obtain and adjust time estimates for the tasks, and analyze requirements in terms of total task time and capacity utilization Work distribution analysis involves assignment of tasks to employees. See Table 2- 2 on page 50.

9 F. Decision Analysis Techniques A decision symbol in a flowchart can only show two flow condition. More complex decision functions may be represented using one of the following: 1.Branching tables 2.Decision tables

10 1. Branching Tables A branching table consists of a single condition that can result in more than two paths of processing. The “Go to” section contains either a connector symbol reference or a single flowline to another symbol. Go to Senior Junior Sophomore Freshman Code Equal to Orientation Exit Evaluation AB

11 2. Decision Tables A decision table is similar to a branching table but more complex in that it incorporates multiple decision criteria. An analyst wishes to prepare a decision table for purchase order procedures. First, there is a credit check of the customer. If credit is approved, the order is accepted. If the order calls for 0 to 25 units, there is no discount on the order. If the order calls for 26 to 55 units, it is eligible for a 5 percent discount; if more than 55 units are ordered, the discount is 10 percent. Illustration

12 Credit approved NYYY units-Y units--Y- Over 55 units---Y Reject orderX Accept orderXXX No discountX 5% discountX 10% discountX An Example of a Limited-Entry Decision Table Condition entries are limited to Y, N, or N/A (-). Processing actions are either present or absent.

13 Credit approval NYYY Units in order-0 – 2526 – 55Over 55 Order Acceptance NYYY Discount given 0%5%10% An Example of an Extended-Entry Decision Table Entries indicate specific conditions, specific actions to be taken, or reference to other decision tables.

14 II. Flowcharting Techniques A.Systems Flowchart B.Analytic Flowcharts C.Document Flowcharts D.Forms Distribution Chart E.Program or Block Flowcharts

15 A. Systems Flowcharts A systems flowchart is a graphical representation of the overall flow of work, documents, and operations in an application system. The sandwich rule states that every process should be “sandwiched” between an input symbol and and output symbol. Cash Payments Remittance Advices Prepare Batch Control Total Cash Payments Remittance Advices Batch Control Total

16 B. Analytic Flowcharts Analytic flowcharts identify all significant processing in an application, emphasizing processing tasks that apply controls. In other words, functional areas are separated by columns. See Figure on page 42.

17 B. Document Flowcharts Identifies the point of origin, distribution, and ultimate disposition of each document used in an application system. See Figure 2-11 on page 43.

18 C. Forms Distribution Chart Illustrates the distribution of a single multiple copy form within an organization. Emphasis is on form recipient rather than processing. (The following illustrates the Purchase Order in Figure 2-11 on page 43) PurchasingStoresReceivingVendorAcc. Payable

19 E. Program or Block Flowcharts Program flowcharts are used by system developers to provide detail about individual processing functions. The clutter of the additional processing detail is thus removed from a flowchart showing overall processing. Hours Worked Payroll Register Payroll Checks Compute Gross Pay Compute Withholdings Printing Payroll Processing

20 III. System Technique Symbols A.Basic Flowcharting Symbols B.Other Symbols

21 A. Basic Flowcharting Symbols Basic Input/Output Symbol – Making data available for processing or the recording of processed information. Process – Transforming data into information or other data. Flowline Symbol – Used to show the sequence of information and processing Annotation – Used to show descriptive comments.

22 B. Other Symbols Specialized Input/Output Symbols – See Figure 2-2 on page 35. Data Flow Diagram Symbols – See Symbols in Table 2-1 on page 39. See Illustrations in Figures 2-7 through 2-9 on pages

23 IV. The Use of Systems Techniques A.Auditing B.Systems Development

24 A. Auditing Two basic components of an external audit of financial statements include: Compliance testing is used to determine the extent to which established control procedures are actually being carried out. Substantive testing to verify amounts shown on financial statements. The level of substantive testing will depend on the extent to which the auditor depends on an entity’s system of internal control.

25 B. Systems Development Systems Analysis – Logical data flow diagrams and analytic flowcharts help in providing an overall picture of the how the organization functions. Systems Design – A blueprint of how the proposed system will function. Systems Implementation – Taking steps to put system into operation by doing things like training personnel, and acquiring equipment and software. Systems development generally consists of the following three phases:

26 Summary I.Five Types of Systems Techniques II.Five Types of Flowcharting Techniques III.Basic Flowcharting Symbols IV.Uses of Systems Techniques

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