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Chapter 9: The Traditional Approach to Design Chapter 10 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3 rd Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9: The Traditional Approach to Design Chapter 10 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3 rd Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 9: The Traditional Approach to Design Chapter 10 Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3 rd Edition

2 The Structured Approach to Designing the Application Architecture u Application software programs l Designed in conjunction with database and user interface l Hierarchy of modules u Design internal logic of individual modules u Top-down approach l DFDs with automation boundaries l System flowcharts, structure charts, pseudocode

3 Structured Design Models

4 The Automation System Boundary u Partitions data flow diagram processes into manual processes and automated systems u Processes can be inside or outside boundary u Data flows can be inside and outside of boundary l Data flows that cross system boundary represent inputs and outputs of system l Data flows that cross boundaries between programs represent program-to-program communication

5 DFD with Automation System Boundary

6 The System Flowchart u Representation of various computer programs, files, databases, and associated manual processes that make up complete system u Frequently constructed during analysis activities u Graphically describes organization of subsystems into automated and manual components u Can show type of transaction processing system l Batch l Real time

7 Common System Flowchart Symbols

8 Sample System Flowchart for Payroll System

9 System Flowchart for RMO

10 The Structure Chart u Describes functions and subfunctions of each part of system u Shows relationships between modules of a computer program u Simple and direct organization l Each module performs a specific function l Each layer in a program performs specific activities u Chart is tree-like with root module and branches

11 A Simple Structure Chart for the Calculate Pay Amounts Module

12 Structure Chart Symbols

13 Structure Chart for Entire Payroll Program

14 Developing a Structure Chart u Transaction Analysis l Uses system flow chart and event table inputs l Upper-level modules developed first l Identifies each transaction supported by program u Transform Analysis l Uses DFD fragments for inputs Computer program ‘ transforms ’ inputs into outputs l Charts have input, calculate, and output subtrees

15 Event-partitioned DFD for the Order-Entry Subsystem

16 High-level Structure Chart for the Customer Order Program

17 Steps to Create a Structure Chart from a DFD Fragment u Determine primary information flow l Main stream of data transformed from some input form to output form u Find process that represents most fundamental change from input to output  Redraw DFD with inputs to left and outputs to right – central transform process goes in middle u Generate first draft structure chart based on redrawn data flow

18 The Create New Order DFD Fragment

19 Exploded View of Create New Order DFD

20 Rearranged Create New Order DFD

21 First Draft of the Structure Chart

22 Steps to Create a Structure Chart from a DFD Fragment ( continued ) u Add other modules l Get input data via user-interface screens l Read from and write to data storage l Write output data or reports u Add logic from structured English or decision tables u Make final refinements to structure chart based on quality control concepts

23 The Structure Chart for the Create New Order Program

24 Combination of Structure Charts

25 Evaluating the Quality of a Structure Chart u Module coupling l Measure of how module is connected to other modules in program l Goal is to be loosely coupled u Module cohesion l Measure of internal strength of module l Module performs one defined task l Goal is to be highly cohesive

26 Examples of Module Cohesion

27 Module Algorithm Design: Pseudocode u Describes internal logic of software modules u Variation of structured English that is closer to programming code u Syntax should mirror development language u Three types of control statements used in structured programming: l Sequence: sequence of executable statements l Decision: if-then-else logic l Iteration: do-until or do-while

28 Integrating Structured Application Design with Other Design Tasks u Structure chart must be modified or enhanced to integrate design of user interface and database l Are additional modules needed? l Does pseudocode in modules need modification? l Are additional data couples needed to pass data? u Structure charts and system flowcharts must correspond to planned network architecture l Required protocols, capacity, and security

29 Three-Layer Design u Three-layer architecture: l View layer, business logic layer, and data layer u Structure charts and system flowcharts describe design decisions and software structuring u Employs multiple programs for user interface, business logic, and data access modules u Modules in different layers communicate over real-time links using well-defined protocols

30 System Flowchart Showing Three-Layer Architecture for Customer Order

31 Structure Chart Showing Three-Layer Architecture for Create New Order

32 Summary u For traditional structured approach to systems design, primary input is data flow diagram l DFD is enhanced by adding system boundary l Designer describes processes within each DFD boundary using one or more structure charts u Structure charts developed using: Transaction analysis – multiple transaction types Transform analysis – single transaction from input to output

33 Summary ( continued ) u Structure charts may be based on three-layer architecture l Modules will be clearly identified by layer l Structure chart may be decomposed if layers execute on multiple systems u Structured design may also include: l System flowcharts to show data movement l Module pseudocode to describe internal logic of structure chart module

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