Presentation on theme: "Systems Techniques and Documentation. Use of Systems Techniques in Systems Development What are the three phases of a systems development project? 1Systems."— Presentation transcript:
Use of Systems Techniques in Systems Development What are the three phases of a systems development project? 1Systems analysis 2Systems design 3Systems implementation
Systems Analysis Systems analysis involves collecting and organizing facts. Systems techniques assist the analyst in performing these tasks. What are some of these techniques? –matrix techniques –logical data flow diagrams
Systems Implementation Systems implementation involves the actual carrying out of the design plan. Documentation is one of the most important parts of systems implementation. What systems techniques serve as a documentation tool? –program flowcharts –decision tables
Systems Techniques What is a flowchart? A flowchart is a symbolic diagram that shows the data flow and sequence of operations in a system. Flowcharts are probably the most common systems technique.
Basic Symbols Input/Outpu t Process Flowline Annotation
Specialized Input/Output Symbols Punched Card On-Line Storage Magnetic Tape Magnetic Disk Punched Tape
Specialized Input/Output Symbols Document Manual Input Display Communicatio n Link Off-Line Storage
Specialized Process Symbols Decision Predefin ed Process Preparation Manual Operation Auxiliar y Operati on Merge Extrac t Sor t Collate
Symbol Use in Flowcharting Symbols are used in a flowchart to represent the functions of an information or other type of system. Normal direction of flow is from left to right and top to bottom. Open arrowheads should be used on reverse-direction flowlines
Symbol Use in Flowcharting Invoice Review and Approve Review and Approve Approved Invoice Approved Invoice Normal Direction of Flow
Symbol Use in Flowcharting Invoice Review and Approve Review and Approve Approved Invoice Approved Invoice Reverse Flow Shown with Arrowheads
Symbol Use in Flowcharting Use of Connector Symbol Requisition Purchasin g Stores A A
Symbol Use in Flowcharting Requisition Purchase Order Purchase Order Vendor Files Vendor Files Bidirectional Flow Shown with Arrowheads Prepare Purchase Order and Update Vendor Files
Learning Objective Define common systems techniques, such as HIPO charts, systems flowcharts, and logical data flow diagrams.
IPO and HIPO Charts These charts are used primarily by systems development personnel. At the most general level of analysis only the basic input- process-output relations in a system are of concern. Additional processing detail is provided by hierarchy plus input-process-output.
Hierarchy Chart Payroll System Data Preparation Processing Review 1.0 2.03.04.0
Hierarchy Chart Calculate Gross Pay Calculate Net Pay Accumulate Hours Worked Find Correct Pay Rate Compute Gross Pay 3.13.2 18.104.22.168 Each numbered module would be detailed in an IPO chart.
Systems and Program Flowcharts A systems flowchart identifies the overall or broad flow of operations in a system. The focus of systems flowcharting concerns media and processing functions rather than the detailed logic of individual processing functions.
Logical Data Flow Diagram Symbols Terminato r Process Data Store Data Flow
Data Flow Diagram Timekeeping Process Payroll Data Process Payroll Data Employees Payroll Data
Data Flow Diagram Timekeeping Verify Payroll Data P1 Verify Payroll Data P1 Employee Data Payroll Data Current Status Data Valid Valid Payroll Data
Data Flow Diagram Employee Data Valid Payroll Data Calculate Pay P2 Calculate Pay P2 Data to Process Employees Payche cks Net Pay and Deductions
Data Flow Diagram Employees Compute Net Pay Compute Net Pay Net Pay and Deductions Payche cks Update Employee Files Update Employee Files Process Payroll Journal Process Payroll Journal Current Amount s Detai ls Journa l Data
Analytic, Document, and Forms Distribution Flowcharts An analytic flowchart identifies all significant processing in an application, emphasizing processing tasks that apply controls. In an analytic flowchart the flow of processing is depicted using symbols connected with flowlines.
Analytic, Document, and Forms Distribution Flowcharts A document flowchart is similar in format to an analytic flowchart but contains less detail about the processing functions of each entity shown on the chart. The only symbol used in a document flowchart is the document symbol.
Analytic, Document, and Forms Distribution Flowcharts The forms distribution chart illustrates the distribution of multiple copy forms with an organization. The emphasis is on who gets what forms rather than on how these forms are processed.
Analytic Flowchart Approve Vendor List Approve Vendor List Prepare Quotation Prepare Quotation Select Vendors Select Vendors Request for Quotation Request for Quotation Request for Quotation Request for Quotation Purchasing Suppliers
Analytic Flowchart Prepare Purchase Order Prepare Purchase Order Select Bid Select Bid Quotations Purchasing Suppliers Quotations Purchase Order Purchase Order Purchase Order Purchase Order
Document Flowchart Controller Vice President Manufacturing Purchase Requisition 2 Purchase Requisition 2 Accounts Payable Purchasing Agent Receiving Stores 2 Purchase Requisition 1 Purchase Requisition 1 Purchase Requisition 1 Purchase Requisition 1 Purchase Order 3 Purchase Order 3 Purchase Order 1 Purchase Order 1 2 3 4 5 Purchase Order 4 Purchase Order 4 Purchase Order 5 Purchase Order 5 To Vendor
Forms Distribution Chart Purchasing Inventory Payables Production Accounting Purchase Order Copy 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 1 2 3 4