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The Internal Assessment: The Historical Investigation

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1 The Internal Assessment: The Historical Investigation
L/O – To understand and identify how to complete the history IA

2 Deadlines June-July: Topic and Question Confirmed. Begin researching sources and evidence based on your question. July-August: Begin first draft of IA. Complete Section A: Plan, Section B: Summary of Evidence, Section C: Evaluation, Section D: Analysis, Section E: Conclusion and Section F: Referencing and Word Count. September: Submit first draft by Friday 5th September. Draft returned with Feedback by Monday 8th September. October: Final submission of IA due on Friday 24th October.

3 Scope of the Investigation
Undertake a historical investigation using a good range of historical sources. Focus on an event with a cut- off date that is at least 10 years before submission. (2004) Provide a title for the investigate that is framed as a question. Produce a written account of between words. Name Topic/Question CHEUK, Sabrina History of the Philippines – Was the occupation of the Philippines by the USA beneficial to the Philippines? DUBE, Noel Women’s Rights – Was the women’s movement of the 1960s in America successful? LIM, Mary Nazi Germany – What were the causes of Hitler’s anti-Semitism? NGAI, Melanie US History – How useful is the film, Killing Kennedy, to the historian studying the assassination of JFK? WEI, Le Tone Modern China – To what extent was the GMD responsible for its loss during the Chinese Civil War? WU, Adrian Nazi Germany – How and why did Germany lose in World War Two? ZHAO, Felicia Modern China – How did Mao Zedong use propaganda to start the Cultural Revolution?

4 Structure of the IA Your IA is marked out of 25 and is worth 20% of your final mark. It is divided into sections, with each section marked separately: Section A – Plan of Investigation - 2 MARKS – 150 words The Plan is essentially your introduction and should be written as such. You should discuss your research question, scope of the investigation and methods/sources used to investigate. Section B – Summary of Evidence - 6 MARKS – 600 words This is where you present the factual material you have discovered from the sources you have investigated. Evidence should be organised thematically or chronologically and can be written in prose or as a numbered list. NO ANALYSIS of the evidence should be attempted! Section C – Evaluation of Sources - 5 MARKS – 400 words Here is where you show off your source work skills by evaluating TWO important sources by referring explicitly to the origin, purpose, value and limitations of the sources. Section D – Analysis - 6 MARKS – 650 words This is the essay part of the investigation where you write up your research and analyse the lines of argument found. YOU MUST use the evidence provided in Section B and Section C. Section E – Conclusion - 2 MARKS – 200 words Here you answer the question set in the title, based on the weight of evidence you have presented. Re-state main findings and make a judgement. Section F – Referencing - 3 MARKS – NOT INCLUDED IN WORD COUNT This marks your ability to reference evidence throughout. Use a bibliography and appendix.

Title Page TITLE OF INVESTIGATION [PICTURE] STUDENT NAME: Mr Stephen Budd CANDIDATE NUMBER: 43422 CENTRE NUMBER/NAME: Kiangsu-Chekiang College International Section / 3088 WORD COUNT: 1980

6 Section A: Plan of Investigation
State your research question – explain and justify why you chose that theme. i.e. ‘This study will seek to answer the question… I chose this question because…’ Define Scope in Investigation – Identify the themes and lines of argument, dates, to be considered. Explain Methodology – What types of sources will be used, which TWO key sources will you evaluate. i.e. ‘In order to answer this question, I made use of…’ There is no plan of the investigation, or it is inappropriate. 1 The research question, method and scope of the investigation are not clearly stated. 2 The research question is clearly stated. The method and scope of the investigation are outlined and related to the research question. 3 The research question is clearly stated. The method and scope of the investigation are fully developed and closely focused on the research question.

7 To what extent was the Stalinist State established at the expense of the Soviet people?
This investigation will contend to answer the question "to what extent was the Stalinist state established at the expense of the Soviet people." I will focus on the economical, agricultural and social policies undertaken by the Stalinist dictatorship, and look into particular detail how these policies and reforms affected the peasantry and the proletariat in Russia. I have chosen this topic for I am deeply interested in how Josef Stalin managed to re-organise the Russian nation into the superpower it had the potential to be after Russia emerged victorious after WW2. I was amazed how quickly the country progressed after it had been soiled and dragged in the mud by a painful and endless tsarist autocratic rule, displaying Tsars each as bad as the other, failing to reform in multiple aspects of Russian life. In order to answer this question, I have structured my analysis to firstly see what were the benefits of the changes adopted by Stalin, and secondly if these benefits were outweighed by their cost. In order to keep the scope of the study manageable, I have made use of a variety of carefully selected sources, in particular a wide range of book passages, photographs, quotes and statistics.“ - Word Count: 200 words

8 Section B: Summary of Evidence
1. Conditions in the Mining Industry a.) 70% of mine owners ' costs were for labour - wages would be cut (1). b.) 'Miners were amongst the nation's worst paid workers and suffered the nation's highest rate of unemployment' (2). 2. Broader economic problems a.) The Triple Alliance was formed in April 1914 (comprising 1.5 million miners, railwaymen and transport workers) after a series of strikes (12). b.) 'The war led to over-investment in... iron, steel, coal, shipbuilding and textiles [which] were not needed in such quantities in peacetime' (13). 3. Political Discontent a.) In 1920, of the 288 Trades and Labour Councils, 139 voted in favour of ending the economic blockade of the USSR 'in defiance of the right-wing national leadership' (21). b.) November 1924: 'the stage was set for the offensive against the conditions of the British working class. Economic crisis was to be translated into political attack' (22). There is no relevant factual material. 1-2 There is some relevant factual material but it has not been referenced. 3-4 There is relevant factual material that shows evidence of research, organisation and referencing. 5-6 The factual material is all relevant to the investigation and it has been well researched, organised and correctly referenced.

9 'Prior to Stalin's rise to power as leader of the USSR, Russia was undergoing a period of great change and turmoil. Immediately after Lenin's death in 1924, the struggle for power and individual ruling of Soviet Russia had already started only to end in 1928, with Stalin beating both left and right with cunning ability enhanced by good fortune (2). In the late 1920s, Stalin became the definite vozhd (3) of the USSR and did not wait to apply his concept of 'Socialism in One Country' (concept that had countered Trotsky's notion of 'Permanent Revolution'). (4). This concept aimed to overcome Russia's present primitive agriculture and industrial problems (5). Stalin, who believed that the USSR's survival depended on its ability to became a powerful modern and industrialised nation, made it very clear from the start that this was his main priority, for in 1931, Stalin announced that 'We (the USSR) are fifty or a hundred years behind the advanced countries. We must make good this distance in ten years [...] or we shall be crushed' (6).

10 Section C: Evaluation of Sources
There is no description or evaluation of the sources. 1 The sources are described but there is no reference to their origin, purpose, value and limitation. 2-3 There is some evaluation of the sources but reference to their origin, purpose, value and limitation may be limited. 4-5 There is evaluation of the sources and explicit reference to their origin, purpose, value and limitation. To get full marks, you need to critically evaluate TWO sources and refer explicitly to OPVL. By analysing the origins and purpose of each source, you can work out the values and limitations of each source to your investigation. The choice of TWO sources is important – they must be sources you can use meaningfully and you must refer to them again in Section D: Analysis.

11 Purpose Value Limitations
Origin In order to analyse a source, it is important to first determine what it is and where it came from. Is it a primary source or a secondary source? Who created/wrote it and when? Purpose Why was the document created? What is the intent? Who do you think is the intended audience? What does the document say? Value Based upon who wrote the document and why, what value does the document have to an historian? Question to consider: What can you tell about the author and the time period? Under what circumstances was the document created and what can we tell about the circumstances from the document? What can you tell about any controversies that may exist from the document? What can you tell about the author’s perspective from the document? How does the document accurately reflect what was going on in history at the time? Limitations At what point does this source cease to be of value to historians? Questions to consider: What part of the story can you NOT tell from the document? How can you verify the content of the piece? Does the piece inaccurately reflect anything about the time period? Does the author leave anything out and if so, why do you think they did so?

12 Origins (when, where and by whom was the source produced?)
OPVL Value Limitations Origins (when, where and by whom was the source produced?) Primary Sources – provide first hand knowledge of the events described, give a ‘snapshot’ of opinion at the time. Secondary Sources – Hindsight, Objectivity Primary Sources – Too wrapped up in events, miss ‘big picture’, sometimes subject to censorship (China). Secondary Sources – Often a narrow depth study or a superficial overview Purpose (what is the intended audience?) Facts – dry, objective sources give data to be checked against other sources to provide conclusions. Opinions – Biased, subjective sources give an insight into the attitudes of the time. Facts – Censorship: a factual account can still be misleading if it leaves out ‘inconvenient truths’. Opinions – Propaganda misleads the reader about the popularity of a regime’s policies.

13 Sample Document Analysis

14 Sample Document Analysis

15 Source 1: Foster, J. (1976) 'British Imperialism and the Labour aristocracy' in Skelley, J. The General Strike, 1926, London: Lawrence and Wishart, pp The origin of the source is of value because the author is a professional expert in the field of history, studying at St Catherine's College,  Cambridge, and lecturing in politics at Strathclyde University. He was awarded a PhD 'for a these on working-class consciousness in the early nineteenth century' (1), showing he is a peer-assessed professional in early 20th-century British history and politics. The essay is part of J. Skelley's book The General Strike, 1926, which is a collaboration of historical essays, including bibliographical information throughout. The purpose of Foster's essay is to analyse the run-up to the General Strike of This is valuable, since it enables a variety of information to be given over a long period of time, providing academic analysis and historical evidence of the political and economic causes.

16 Source 1: Foster, J. (1976) 'British Imperialism and the Labour aristocracy' in Skelley, J. The General Strike, 1926, London: Lawrence and Wishart, pp The origin of this source also limits its value, however, as Foster is a member of the Communist Party of Great Britain (2), therefore the evidence presented in the essay may not be accurate as it may focus on the trade unions and Communist Party. Also, as it was published in 1976 more evidence might since have come to light. The purpose of this source also makes it limited; the title, 'British Imperialism and the Labour Aristocracy', uses biased language, referring to the government as 'aristocracy'. This displays Foster's political views, which are extremely left wing, and therefore the analysis may not be objective.

17 Section D: Analysis There is no analysis. 1-2 There is some attempt at analysing the evidence presented in Section B. 3-4 There is analysis of the evidence presented in Section B and references are included. There may be some awareness of the significance to the investigation of the sources evaluated in Section C. Where appropriate, different interpretations are considered. 5-6 There is critical analysis of the evidence presented in Section B, accurate referencing, and an awareness of the significance to the investigation of the sources evaluated in Section C. Where appropriate, different interpretations are analysed. Use the evidence presented in Section B AND C to write your essay – explain and analyse the lines of argument your have found in your research. Use evidence in your analysis as supporting examples, especially two sources from Section C. Try to consider different interpretations on the question/historiography. Be sure to reference ALL evidence used!

18 Many contemporary historians, including John Foster, believe that the General Strike was the result of problems in Britain's mining industry, and 'was called by a reluctant, apprehensive Trade Unions Congress to defend the living standards... of the miners' (1). The inter-war period saw a dramatic collapse of the industry, as demand for coal decreased and use of other fuels increased, such as oil in British shipping (2). In addition, the Treaty of Versailles negatively affected the industry, as Germany was ordered to pay reparations of coal to Italy and France; meaning the demand for British coal was almost non-existent (3). Due to the post-war situation in Europe, there was little demand for British exports, and after 1918 the coal-mining industry was left 'with around a quarter to a third surplus capacity' (4). This meant the owners of mines were left with little choice but to cut wages, since 70% of costs went to labour (5), and between 1920 and 1924 wages were cut by 26% (6). However, in 1925 the industry 'was losing $1 million a month' and 'more than a tenth of [collieries were] forced to close' (7). Miners were among the nation's lowest paid workers (8) working in appalling conditions; 'between 1922 and 1924, 3,603 miners were killed and 597,158 injured' (9). Due to the necessary cut-backs, hours were lengthened from 7 to 8 hours, and wages cut 13-38% (10). In March 1926 the government produced the Samuel Commission, proposing an end to mining subsidies (around $25 million) along with further pay-cuts. This led to a lock-out on 1 April, which triggered the outbreak of the General Strike on 3 May 1926 (11). To what extent was the General Strike of 1926 caused by conditions in the mining industry? Section D: Analysis

19 However, there were also broader economic problems during the 1920s, suggesting the causes of the General Strike were perhaps broader than historians such as John Foster suggest. Even before the First World War there was unrest in British industry. The Triple Alliance, consisting of 1.5 million miners, railwaymen and transport workers, was formed in April 1914 (12) and was involved in further strikes leading up to and including the General Strike. During the war there was increased industrial production; however, afterwards there was huge over-production in 'iron and steel, coal, shipbuilding and textiles... [which were] not needed in such quantities in peacetime' (13). Additionally, the growth of the USA, which 'was producing two-thirds of the world's steel' by 1919 (14) and the economic collapse of Europe hindered Britain. This caused a fall in profits in many staple industries, causing 'mass unemployment and industrial unrest' in the 1920s (15); a situation described by the prime minister as 'unprecedented', especially as many of those unemployed were skilled workers (16). 'Three-quarters of the jobless [in ] were in... shipbuilding, textiles and engineering' where '20 or 30%... were permanently unemployed (17)'. These problems were exacerbated in 1925, when the government put Britain back on the Gold Standard, meaning the pound was overvalued by % (18) and the price of exports rose by 10%, causing a decrease in foreign trade (19). Statistics suggest that although imports rose in 1925, exports were '25% down on the 1913 figure' (20). This meant that it was extremely difficult for export industries to recover during the early 1920s, and there was discontent among the British working class as a whole.

20 There are also political factors leading to the outbreak of the General Strike in Historian James Kluggman claimed that although economic problems were important, the strike saw this 'translated into political attack' (21). The British government believed the strike was an attempt at revolution, and an article in the government publication, the British Gazette, stated 'The General Strike is in operation, expressing in no uncertain terms a direct challenge to ordered government' (22). This reflected popular opinion at the time, as there was a great fear of communism after the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 (23). The trade unions also had apparent links with the Communist Party, shown in 1920, when of the 288 Trades and Labour Councils, 139 voted in favour of ending the economic blockade of the USSR, and against the right-wing governments' proposals (24). In Trotsky's book Whither England, he wrote of 'a gradual and painless penetration of communism into the ranks of the British Labour Party and trade unions' (25), suggesting a link to the Soviet Union. This fear was exacerbated by the 'Zinoviev Letter' published in the Daily Mail  in 1924, a forged letter allegedly from Comintern addressed to the CPGB (26). This letter referred to the necessity to 'stir up the masses of the British proletariat' to 'bring increased pressure... upon the government' (27). On 3 May 1926, the day of the outbreak of the General Strike, Daily Mail printers refused to print a passage calling the strike 'a revolutionary movement, intended to inflict suffering on the great mass of innocent persons' (28).

21 There is no conclusion, or the conclusion is not relevant.
Section E: Conclusion There is no conclusion, or the conclusion is not relevant. 1 The conclusion is stated but is not entirely consistent with the evidence presented. 2 The conclusion is clearly stated and consistent with the evidence presented. This is where your conclude your investigation by answering your research question. Re-state your main findings and make a judgement based on the weight of evidence that you have presented. You may like to finish by outlining why any conclusion remains provisional, or whether your investigation has raised any problems/areas for further study.

22 To what extent was the General Strike of 1926 caused by conditions in the mining industry?
It is clear that conditions in the mining industry and discontent among miners played a key role in the build-up to the General Strike. These problems were intensified by broader economic issues in Britain and post-war Europe, leading to the decline of the economic situation nationally. Equally as important were the political issues, specifically the conflict between the left-wing trade unions and the right-wing government, and the potential association with the revolutionary Communist Party of Great Britain. Based on the weight of evidence, it was these political tensions, specifically in the months prior to the outbreak of the strike, that explain why a general strike happened in May 1926.

23 Section F: Sources and Word Limit
A list of sources is not included or the investigation is not within the word limit. 1 A list of sources is included but these are limited or one standard method is not used consistently or the word count is not clearly and accurately stated on the title page. 2 A list of sources using one standard method is included and the investigation is within the word limit. 3 An appropriate list of sources, using one standard method, is included. The investigation is within the word limit. This section marks your ability to accurately and consistently reference all sources, evidence and citations used in your investigation. Reference all sources and citations and list them in a bibliography. Use an appendix to attach any illustrations, documents, transcripts. State the word count clearly on your title page.

24 General Advice Put each section on a new page
Keep track of your bibliography as you are working, do not leave it to the last minute! You must use referencing (Harvard) throughout the essay and include all sources, evidence and citations in the bibliography. An Appendix should be used for all illustrations, documents, interview transcripts etc. Organise your time and set clear objectives. Keep the mark scheme with you and refer to it at all times! Read through example IA’s first.

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