2 In un-accelerated flight Straight and Level FlightLift = WeightThrust = DragIn un-accelerated flight2
3 Climbing Flight Extra lift required to begin climb Nearly the same lift as level flight required to continue climb
4 Climbing FlightN738ZD says up to 6 strokes; 43T just says “as required”If no change in thrust, speed decreases, then stabilizes at slower speedUse extra thrust if you want to maintain speed
5 Descending Flight If power held constant, Pushing nose down decreases AOA, decreases liftLift now less than weight, aircraft descendsAircraft speed increases unless power is reduced
6 Turning and Load Factor For a level, constant airspeed turn:Load factor (g force) increases inversely with the cosine of the bank angle (for you trigonometry fans)30o bank: 1.15g45o bank: 1.41g60o bank: 2.00g80o bank: 5.76gThis means, for instance, that the wing must produce lift equal to twice the aircraft weight in a 60o bank turn
7 Forces in a Turn This assumes constant airspeed and altitude Lift vector pointed inside the turn (horizontal component of lift) is what turns youVertical component of lift must still equal weight
8 Forces in a Steep TurnThe greater the angle of bank, the faster the rate of turnBut also bigger forces to contend withRequires more power to maintain airspeed
10 StallsA stall occurs when the smooth airflow over the airplane’s wing is disrupted, and the lift degenerates rapidlyThis is caused when the wing exceeds its critical angle of attackThis can occur at any airspeed, in any attitude, with any power setting
13 Awareness of Imminent Stall We’ll be doing mostly low-speed stalls, soLessening of wind noiseLessening of prop noise/RPM as you slowMushiness of controlsNose higher than for normal flightStall warning horn comes on 5-8 kt above stall speed in wings level, 1g flightJust prior to stall, often some buffeting
14 Awareness of StallStall horn is probably making it difficult to understand what the instructor’s shoutingUsually some buffetingNose usually drops, even though yoke is held backInstruments or visual cues indicate a descentA wing may lower uncommanded
15 Stall Recovery Almost simultaneously, in order of importance: Decrease angle of attackLevel the wingsAchieve maximum powerStop descent and begin to accelerateContinue to accelerate and clean up (flaps, gear) as required
16 Decrease Angle of Attack In most scenarios, this means “decrease back pressure on the yoke”In some situations, e.g., elevator trim stall, it could mean “push the yoke forward a bit”In most stalls that we’ll practice, pushing the yoke forward will result in a longer time to recover / more altitude lost in the recovery
17 Level the WingsAilerons will probably still be effective, due to design of your aircraftWings are designed to stall at the roots first, tips later, and ailerons are near the tipsRudder will be effective no matter whatUse coordinated aileron and rudder to get wings level
18 Achieve Maximum Power Firewall the throttle Push in carb heat if it’s pulled outTechnique: stick your left thumb out to catch the carb heat knob as you push the throttle inYou’ll need a lot of right rudder to stay coordinated due to high RPM/low airspeed effects
19 Stop Descent and Accelerate Reapply enough back pressure to maximize liftStop descent; peek at VSI to confirmWhen descent is stopped, ease nose over to accelerateWe want recovery to occur here
20 Accelerate and Clean Up While level to slightly climbing, raise flapsAircraft won’t accelerate well with flaps >20o, so bring them up to 20o right awayFlaps full up after VxYou’ll need gradually less rudder as you accelerateFor our purposes, maneuver is over when you reach 100 kts/MPH
21 Factors Affecting Stall Speed A given wing always stalls at the same AOA, but this AOA may occur at different speeds. Some factors that affect this:Load factor, or G forces: more Gs, faster stall speedLevel, constant speed turn increases load factor, so turning flight increases stall speedLocation of center of gravity (CG): CG further forward, faster stall speedShape, or degradation of shape of the wingLowering flaps increases wing camber, lowers stall speedIce contamination on wing decreases its efficiency, raises stall speed
22 Stall Warning DevicesIn training aircraft, stall warning is provided by a type of whistle or horn that makes a distinctive noiseBoth types aligned so they make begin making noise at an AOA corresponding to 5-8 kts below stall in 1G level flightA whistle type requires no electricity; it’s basically a slot with a harmonica reed in itA horn type has a movable metal tab that acts as a switch to operate a hornEither type may be rendered inoperative by icing on the wing
23 Stall Warning DevicesIn some aircraft, stall warning is provided by stall stripsStrips of metal at wing’s leading edge designed to disturb airflow approaching stall AOA enough to provide a warning buffet in the controlsLarger aircraft often have a stick shakerElectric motor that causes a vibration in the yoke or stick when approaching stall AOA
24 Wing Design and the Stall In most aircraft, the wingtips have less angle of incidence than the wing rootsThis causes the wingtips to have a smaller angle of attack than the wing roots during flightThis allows aileron control to be available at high angles of attack and gives the airplane more stable stalling characteristics
25 Spin EntrySpins are the result of both wings stalling, but one wing stalling more. As the angle of attack increases past the critical angle of attack, the wing stalls. However, the airplane will roll and yaw towards the wing that is in a greater stalled condition, and then will begin a rotation or spin if the stall is not corrected.
26 SpinAs a spin becomes fully developed, its path resembles a spiral as the plane rapidly descends.
27 Spin Recovery To stop a spin: Reduce the throttle to idle. Apply rudder opposite to the direction of the spin.
28 Spin RecoveryWhen the rotation stops, reduce the angle of attack by pushing the yoke forward.
29 NOTAMs NOtices To AirMen Available through a variety of sources: Advisory notices regarding the condition of facilities and airspaceAvailable through a variety of sources:https://pilotweb.nas.faa.gov/PilotWeb/Many pilot-friendly websites: AOPA, AirNav, etc.By phone from Flight Service StationAlways a good idea to check NOTAMs for your routeAre all facilities (runways, taxiways, navigational aids, etc.) I plan to use operational today?Are there any temporary flight restrictions (TFRs), areas I must avoid to avoid getting shot down?
30 NOTAMs Five kinds of US domestic NOTAMs: NOTAM (D) Info concerning navigational aids, runways, taxiways, lighting, etc.FDC (Flight Data Center) NOTAMAmendments to published instrument procedures and charts, temporary flight restrictions (TFRs)Pointer NOTAMIssued by a Flight Service to highlight another NOTAMSpecial Use Airspace (SUA) NOTAMWhen SUA will be active outside published schedule timesMilitary NOTAMInfo regarding military navigational aids
31 Airport/Facility Directory A reference with all the info you need for all public airports you may want to useSeparated into six volumes for different regions of the countryEssential for cross-country planning
32 Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) Official Guide to Basic Flight Information and ATC ProceduresAlso available in hard copy
33 Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) Here’s what’s in itYes, you have to read itChapter 1Air NavigationChapter 2Aeronautical Lighting and Other Airport Visual AidsChapter 3AirspaceChapter 4Air Traffic ControlChapter 5Air Traffic ProceduresChapter 6Emergency ProceduresChapter 7Safety of FlightChapter 8Medical Facts for PilotsChapter 9Aeronautical Charts and Related PublicationsChapter 10Helicopter OperationsAppendicesBird/Other Wildlife Strike Report, Volcanic Activity Reporting Form, Laser Beam Exposure Questionnaire, Abbreviations/Acronyms
34 Federal Aviation Regulations Now found in Title 14, Code of Federal RegulationsBut still almost universally referred to as FARsStatutory requirementsOften arbitrary and confusing, but you still have to know them and follow themThe FAA is free to suspend or revoke your pilot certificate if they find you in violation of any of themYou (as pilot in command) can deviate from flying rule requirements as required to handle any emergency [14 CFR 91.3(b)]
35 Pilot/Controller Glossary Published as an addendum to the AIMLists all the words in pilot speakYes, you should look through itIt’ll help you when your instructor asks stuff like “What’s the definition of a ceiling” and such
36 Advisory Circulars (ACs) An Advisory Circular is information that the FAA wants to give out to the aviation community, usually not published elsewhereAdvisory, not regulatory in natureCover all kinds of arcane stuffWe’ve already referenced some in this course