Climbing Flight Extra lift required to begin climb Nearly the same lift as level flight required to continue climb
Climbing Flight If no change in thrust, speed decreases, then stabilizes at slower speed Use extra thrust if you want to maintain speed
Descending Flight If power held constant, Pushing nose down decreases AOA, decreases lift Lift now less than weight, aircraft descends Aircraft speed increases unless power is reduced
Turning and Load Factor For a level, constant airspeed turn: Load factor (g force) increases inversely with the cosine of the bank angle (for you trigonometry fans) 30 o bank: 1.15g 45 o bank: 1.41g 60 o bank: 2.00g 80 o bank: 5.76g This means, for instance, that the wing must produce lift equal to twice the aircraft weight in a 60 o bank turn
Forces in a Turn This assumes constant airspeed and altitude Lift vector pointed inside the turn (horizontal component of lift) is what turns you Vertical component of lift must still equal weight
Forces in a Steep Turn The greater the angle of bank, the faster the rate of turn But also bigger forces to contend with Requires more power to maintain airspeed
Stall Speed and Turns
Stalls A stall occurs when the smooth airflow over the airplane’s wing is disrupted, and the lift degenerates rapidly This is caused when the wing exceeds its critical angle of attack This can occur at any airspeed, in any attitude, with any power setting
Awareness of Imminent Stall We’ll be doing mostly low-speed stalls, so Lessening of wind noise Lessening of prop noise/RPM as you slow Mushiness of controls Nose higher than for normal flight Stall warning horn comes on 5-8 kt above stall speed in wings level, 1g flight Just prior to stall, often some buffeting
Awareness of Stall Stall horn is probably making it difficult to understand what the instructor’s shouting Usually some buffeting Nose usually drops, even though yoke is held back Instruments or visual cues indicate a descent A wing may lower uncommanded
Stall Recovery Almost simultaneously, in order of importance: Decrease angle of attack Level the wings Achieve maximum power Stop descent and begin to accelerate Continue to accelerate and clean up (flaps, gear) as required
Decrease Angle of Attack In most scenarios, this means “decrease back pressure on the yoke” In some situations, e.g., elevator trim stall, it could mean “push the yoke forward a bit” In most stalls that we’ll practice, pushing the yoke forward will result in a longer time to recover / more altitude lost in the recovery
Level the Wings Ailerons will probably still be effective, due to design of your aircraft Wings are designed to stall at the roots first, tips later, and ailerons are near the tips Rudder will be effective no matter what Use coordinated aileron and rudder to get wings level
Achieve Maximum Power Firewall the throttle Push in carb heat if it’s pulled out Technique: stick your left thumb out to catch the carb heat knob as you push the throttle in You’ll need a lot of right rudder to stay coordinated due to high RPM/low airspeed effects
Stop Descent and Accelerate Reapply enough back pressure to maximize lift Stop descent; peek at VSI to confirm When descent is stopped, ease nose over to accelerate We want recovery to occur here
Accelerate and Clean Up While level to slightly climbing, raise flaps Aircraft won’t accelerate well with flaps >20 o, so bring them up to 20 o right away Flaps full up after V x You’ll need gradually less rudder as you accelerate For our purposes, maneuver is over when you reach 100 kts/MPH
Factors Affecting Stall Speed A given wing always stalls at the same AOA, but this AOA may occur at different speeds. Some factors that affect this: Load factor, or G forces: more Gs, faster stall speed Level, constant speed turn increases load factor, so turning flight increases stall speed Location of center of gravity (CG): CG further forward, faster stall speed Shape, or degradation of shape of the wing Lowering flaps increases wing camber, lowers stall speed Ice contamination on wing decreases its efficiency, raises stall speed
Stall Warning Devices In training aircraft, stall warning is provided by a type of whistle or horn that makes a distinctive noise Both types aligned so they make begin making noise at an AOA corresponding to 5-8 kts below stall in 1G level flight A whistle type requires no electricity; it’s basically a slot with a harmonica reed in it A horn type has a movable metal tab that acts as a switch to operate a horn Either type may be rendered inoperative by icing on the wing
Stall Warning Devices In some aircraft, stall warning is provided by stall strips Strips of metal at wing’s leading edge designed to disturb airflow approaching stall AOA enough to provide a warning buffet in the controls Larger aircraft often have a stick shaker Electric motor that causes a vibration in the yoke or stick when approaching stall AOA
Wing Design and the Stall In most aircraft, the wingtips have less angle of incidence than the wing roots This causes the wingtips to have a smaller angle of attack than the wing roots during flight This allows aileron control to be available at high angles of attack and gives the airplane more stable stalling characteristics
Spin Entry Spins are the result of both wings stalling, but one wing stalling more. As the angle of attack increases past the critical angle of attack, the wing stalls. However, the airplane will roll and yaw towards the wing that is in a greater stalled condition, and then will begin a rotation or spin if the stall is not corrected.
Spin As a spin becomes fully developed, its path resembles a spiral as the plane rapidly descends.
Spin Recovery To stop a spin: Reduce the throttle to idle. Apply rudder opposite to the direction of the spin. To stop a spin: Reduce the throttle to idle. Apply rudder opposite to the direction of the spin.
Spin Recovery When the rotation stops, reduce the angle of attack by pushing the yoke forward.
NOTAMs NOtices To AirMen Advisory notices regarding the condition of facilities and airspace Available through a variety of sources: https://pilotweb.nas.faa.gov/PilotWeb/ https://pilotweb.nas.faa.gov/PilotWeb/ Many pilot-friendly websites: AOPA, AirNav, etc. By phone from Flight Service Station Always a good idea to check NOTAMs for your route Are all facilities (runways, taxiways, navigational aids, etc.) I plan to use operational today? Are there any temporary flight restrictions (TFRs), areas I must avoid to avoid getting shot down?
NOTAMs Five kinds of US domestic NOTAMs: NOTAM (D) Info concerning navigational aids, runways, taxiways, lighting, etc. FDC (Flight Data Center) NOTAM Amendments to published instrument procedures and charts, temporary flight restrictions (TFRs) Pointer NOTAM Issued by a Flight Service to highlight another NOTAM Special Use Airspace (SUA) NOTAM When SUA will be active outside published schedule times Military NOTAM Info regarding military navigational aids
Airport/Facility Directory A reference with all the info you need for all public airports you may want to use Separated into six volumes for different regions of the country Essential for cross-country planning
Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) Official Guide to Basic Flight Information and ATC Procedures Also available in hard copy
Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) Chapter 1Air Navigation Chapter 2Aeronautical Lighting and Other Airport Visual Aids Chapter 3Airspace Chapter 4Air Traffic Control Chapter 5Air Traffic Procedures Chapter 6Emergency Procedures Chapter 7Safety of Flight Chapter 8Medical Facts for Pilots Chapter 9Aeronautical Charts and Related Publications Chapter 10Helicopter Operations AppendicesBird/Other Wildlife Strike Report, Volcanic Activity Reporting Form, Laser Beam Exposure Questionnaire, Abbreviations/Acronyms Here’s what’s in it Yes, you have to read it
Federal Aviation Regulations Now found in Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations But still almost universally referred to as FARs Statutory requirements Often arbitrary and confusing, but you still have to know them and follow them The FAA is free to suspend or revoke your pilot certificate if they find you in violation of any of them You (as pilot in command) can deviate from flying rule requirements as required to handle any emergency [14 CFR 91.3(b)][14 CFR 91.3(b)]
Pilot/Controller Glossary Published as an addendum to the AIM Lists all the words in pilot speak Yes, you should look through it It’ll help you when your instructor asks stuff like “What’s the definition of a ceiling” and such
Advisory Circulars (ACs) An Advisory Circular is information that the FAA wants to give out to the aviation community, usually not published elsewhere Advisory, not regulatory in nature Cover all kinds of arcane stuff We’ve already referenced some in this course