Presentation on theme: "Baroque Instrumental Music"— Presentation transcript:
1Baroque Instrumental Music This is the first time that we see instrumental music sharing the same stature as vocal music.For the first time, there was a clear separation of Vocal and Instrumental musicAbbey Church at Amorbach with Pipe Organ
2Baroque Instrumental Practice There were no ‘classics’, so contemporary composers were very prolificModulations and chromatic harmonies and melodies.Virtuosity (music that shows off the technical skills of the performer)The great composers: Bach, Handel, Couperin, Vivaldi, Scarlati, Corelli were all instrumental virtuosi.
3Baroque Instrumental Evolution Early Baroque Instrumental music uplifted musical line rather than blend. Late Baroque music will focus more on the idea of blend and refined orchestration.Old instruments are being refined to make a more modern sound. Mass produced instruments create a standardized pattern
4Keyboard Music Equal tempered tuning The creation of ‘equal temperament’ (the division of the octave into 12 equally spaced notes) meant that composers could write in any key for the keyboard for the first time.
6Keyboard Instruments Three main instruments Organ: sacred venues and some home chapelsTracker ActionGreat, positive, and portative organHarpsichord: basso continuo for orchestra and dance music. Solo instrument. Strings plucked by a Plectrum.Clavichord: strings struck by hammers made originally from bone. Precursor to the piano.Tracker action means that all of the connections in the organ are mechanical instead of electricalThe positive organ was smaller than the “great” ones, for smaller churches. The portative organ was used in processions but it was also associated with secular music and it would have been used to accompany dance and other itinerant festivities. This portable organ was carried, strapped to the player who pumped with one hand and played with the other. The positive and great organs required someone other than the organist to operate the bellows.
7Positive organ Portative organ Positive Organ Johann Hencke Vienna, c. 1740“Angel plays portative organ
9Harpsichord Harpsichord, ca. 1675 Made by Michele Todini Rome, Italy Description This gilded case encloses an Italian harpsichord of typical design but unusual length. Decorated with a frieze depicting the Triumph of Galatea and supported by three Tritons, the harpsichord originally formed part of Michele Todini's Galeria Armonica and was described in his catalogue of The flanking figures of Polyphemus playing a bagpipe (Todini invented one like it) and Galatea, holding a lute, were displayed with the harpsichord in front of a "mountain" in which a small pipe organ was concealed. The organ simulated the bagpipe's sound and the harpsichord represented the sound of the lute. Todini designed several such lavish instruments and charged admission from the aristocrats who visited his gallery. The artistic quality of the case ranks it among the finest examples of Roman Baroque decorative art; Todini's ingenuity and search for new forms of instrumental expressivity grew out of the same musical climate that led to the invention of the piano.
10Clavichordall the way from ppp to perhaps mp— but what is remarkable is the variation of pitch possible by exerting pressure on the key after it has been played. Bebung was the term given by the Germans to this vibrato effect, although it was probably meant to be used with discretion like an ornament, and not an indiscriminate wallowing around on every single note. It is the degree of control allowed by this immediacy of touch, which is so lacking in all other keyboard instruments: In the clavichord, the finger is always in direct connection through the key and tangent to the sounding string.The clavichord was much lighter than other keyboard instruments and was therefore portable.
11vertically (tonal system) horizontally (modal system) The keyboard, allowed composers to thinkvertically (tonal system)rather thanhorizontally (modal system)more than one note could be played at a time.
12Types of Instrumental Music Improvisatory styleToccataPreludeFantasiaExisting melodyChorale preludeTheme & VariationsFugal styleRicercareFantasiaCapriccioFugueDancesFugues could be independent pieces, but also sections within preludes and toccatas.
13Toccata From Italian verb toccare (to touch) A work with very fast monophonic melodies with chromatic harmonies;Free, irregular metres and rhythms;Often improvised on the organBach’s Toccata and Fugue in D minor (c. 1730)
14The Chorale PreludeOriginally, an introduction to a hymn (chorale); Bach was the preeminent composer of Chorale PreludesLater written down as a composition (a single variation on a chorale)An introduction to a hymn - still sometimes used in churches today – they were often improvised - Melodies woven around main melody (“Cantus Firmus”) of hymnCantus firmus – “fixed melody”A pre-existing melody used as the basis of a polyphonic composition – originally taken from Gregorian chant, later chorale preludes were based on Protestant chorales (mostly Lutheran hymns)
16The Baroque SuiteInstrumental dance music from the Renaissance period now refined in a new style of sound and compositional technique.Pastiche of different international styles of dance forms.First function was dancing at social functions.Other functions: dinner music.Pastiche means a medley of various ingredients – sometimes composers would assemble parts of compositions from other composers
17Order of the Dance Suite Overture (Optional) Allemande Germany 4/4 time Moderate Courante French /4 time Moderate Sarabande Spain /4 time Slow Other Dances (Optional) Minuet Gavotte Bourree Gigue England 6/8 time Fast“Allemande” is French for “German”“Courante” is French for “running” or “flowing”Sarabande was originally from Latin America and came to Europe through Spain and Italy.“Gigue” is French for “jig” originated in the British IslesThis is standard German order.
18Types of Dances Allemande German Quadruple Courante French Triple Jig (Gigue)English/French6/8 or 6/4SarabandeSpanishMinuetItalian peasantGavotteFrench pastoralDuple peasantBourree’French livelyPassepiedFast French minuetTriple peasant
19Jacques Champion Chambonnieres (1601-1672) the founder of the French harspichord schoolnot the first, but the first with “celebrity”Jacques Champion Chambonnieres( )Chambonnieres may be regarded as the founder of the school of French keyboard music that led to François Couperin and Rameau. A member of the minor nobility, Chambonnieres entered the royal service and enjoyed a career of varied material success, while winning a considerable reputation as a performer and composer.
20Jacques Champion de Chambonnières (c.1601-1672) influenced Couperin and RameauChambonnieres, D’Anglebert, and de la Guerre were important early clavecinists“clavecin” is French for “harpsichord”
22Elisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre (1666-1729) A child prodigy who appeared at the court of Louis XIV and so astonished her audience that the king undertook her education, which was supervised by his mistress, Madame de Montespan. A prolific composer of cantatas, operas, string and harpsichord music, she was the most famous woman composer of the baroque.
23François CouperinHe was known as Couperin le Grand" (Couperin the Great) to distinguish him from the other members of his musically talented family.Although the Germans had a standard order, the French used more variety in choices and order and often gave them titles referring to people or moods. Example: Couperin’s “The Dreamer,” “The Mysterious One,” “The Victorious Muse,” “The Roving Shadows.”[2 sound files on the left are “La visionaire”. The sound file on the right is “La muse victorieuse”These are in Couperin’s 27 Harpsichord Suites called “Ordres”
24L’art de toucher le clavecin He also wrote a famous textbook “The Art of Playing the Harpsichord” in 1717 – important because his explanations of how to play the ornamentations in baroque keyboard works tells us how it would authentically sound.
25Couperin's manuscript of the 5th Ordre for harpsichord
26Innovations Instrument building families Strings Stradivarius, Guarneri, and AmatiStringsCat gutSlightly different playing technique….bowingWoodwinds: mellow sound as opposed to a more brassy sound in modern times.
27Innovations Brass Originally a military instrument for signals Without valvesKey changes made by inserting longer or shorter crooks in the horn.
28The SonataEvolved from the Renaissance canzona, which had several contrasting sectionsEarly in the 17th century, “sonata” referred to any piece for instrumentsLater, “sonata” meant a piece for 1 or 2 melody instruments with basso continuoThe sonata evolved from the Renaissance “canzona” Literally, a “canzone” in Italian simply meant “song.”Just like the word “sonata” came from the Latin word “to sound” and “chanson” was French for “song”Sonata in Baroque: any work in contrasting movements and was usually for one or more instruments with basso continuo
29The Sonata Chamber Sonata: Sonata da Camera A group of dances.Number of movements varyChurch Sonata: Sonata da ChiesaSerious collection of piecesContaining polyphonic/contrapuntal texture.Often 4 movements SFSF
31The SonataTrio Sonata: sonata for any combination of two instruments and basso continuo. (which means 4 players)
32Archangelo Corelli (1653-1713) Studied in Bologna-center of violin playing in Northern Italy.Worked in Rome under the patronage of several wealthy benefactors.Became famous for his collections of trio sonatas, violin sonatas, and concerti grossi – by far wrote more trio sonatas. Grout says “The trio and solo sonatas of Corelli represent the crowning achievement in Italian chamber music of the late 17th century.Trio Sonata: Opus 3, No. 2 (Corelli) CD 6/1-5This is a church sonata which uses standard dance forms, despite the negative implicationsNote the suspention tonesHallmarks of Corelli: upper violins are in 3rds and 6ths, octavies and unisons at cadences, chain of suspensions
33The ConcertoA three movement piece (FSF) music that is created from two masses or bodies of sound.Concertare – to contend with or to compete with.Evolved from the concertato principle (Gabrieli)
34tutti (all) ripieno (full) The Two Masses of SoundConcertino: small group.Tutti or ripieno: large group (orchestra)tutti (all) ripieno (full)
35Three types of concerto Solo concerto: A concerto featuring a soloist contending with an orchestra.Concerto Grosso: A concerto featuring a small group contending with a larger group.Concerto ripieno: A concerto in which all take part; no long solos
36Concerto vs Several contrasting movements 1st movement uses ritornello formContrast between performing groups is VIMPvsOrchestra (aka tutti)15-25 strings + harpsichordlouder dynamicssimpler musicSoloist(s)1 to 5 playersmay feature woodwinds, brasssofter dynamicstechnical, virtuosic
37Movement 1 fast, energetic, ritornello form Ritornello form a way of arranging musical ideas (melodies?) in a piece
38Ritornello FormContrast between sections is VIMP Ritornello provides unity “musical glue”Ritornello sectionsplayed by tuttirecurring theme or part of itSolo sectionsplayed by soloist(s)new materialUUUUR1 S1 R2 S2 R3 S3 R4 S4 etc RXCCCCCCCCCC