Presentation on theme: "Baroque Instrumental Music This is the first time that we see instrumental music sharing the same stature as vocal music. For the first time, there was."— Presentation transcript:
Baroque Instrumental Music This is the first time that we see instrumental music sharing the same stature as vocal music. For the first time, there was a clear separation of Vocal and Instrumental music
Baroque Instrumental Practice There were no ‘classics’, so contemporary composers were very prolific Modulations and chromatic harmonies and melodies. Virtuosity (music that shows off the technical skills of the performer)
Baroque Instrumental Evolution Early Baroque Instrumental music uplifted musical line rather than blend. Late Baroque music will focus more on the idea of blend and refined orchestration.
Keyboard Music Equal tempered tuning
Keyboard Instruments Three main instruments Organ: sacred venues and some home chapels Tracker Action Great, positive, and portative organ Harpsichord: basso continuo for orchestra and dance music. Solo instrument. Strings plucked by a Plectrum. Clavichord: strings struck by hammers made originally from bone. Precursor to the piano.
Positive organ Portative organ
Harpsichord, ca Made by Michele Todini Rome, Italy Harpsichord
The keyboard, allowed composers to think vertically (tonal system) rather than horizontally (modal system) more than one note could be played at a time.
Toccata From Italian verb toccare (to touch) A work with very fast monophonic melodies with chromatic harmonies; Free, irregular metres and rhythms; Often improvised on the organ
The Chorale Prelude Originally, an introduction to a hymn (chorale); Bach was the preeminent composer of Chorale Preludes Later written down as a composition (a single variation on a chorale)
The Baroque Suite Instrumental dance music from the Renaissance period now refined in a new style of sound and compositional technique. Pastiche of different international styles of dance forms. First function was dancing at social functions. Other functions: dinner music.
Overture (Optional) Allemande Germany 4/4 time Moderate Courante French 3/4 timeModerate SarabandeSpain 3/4 timeSlow Other Dances (Optional) Minuet Gavotte Bourree GigueEngland 6/8 timeFast Order of the Dance Suite
Types of Dances AllemandeGermanQuadruple CouranteFrenchTriple Jig (Gigue)English/French6/8 or 6/4 SarabandeSpanishTriple MinuetItalian peasantTriple GavotteFrench pastoralDuple peasant Bourree’French livelyDuple peasant PassepiedFast French minuet Triple peasant
Jacques Champion Chambonnieres ( ) the founder of the French harspichord school not the first, but the first with “celebrity”
Jacques Champion de Chambonnières (c ) influenced Couperin and Rameau Chambonnieres, D’Anglebert, and de la Guerre were important early clavecinists “clavecin” is French for “harpsichord”
Jean Henry D’Anglebert ( )
Elisabeth Jacquet de la Guerre ( )
François Couperin He was known as Couperin le Grand" (Couperin the Great) to distinguish him from the other members of his musically talented family.
L’art de toucher le clavecin
Innovations Instrument building families Stradivarius, Guarneri, and Amati Strings Cat gut Slightly different playing technique….bowing Woodwinds: mellow sound as opposed to a more brassy sound in modern times.
Innovations Brass Originally a military instrument for signals Without valves Key changes made by inserting longer or shorter crooks in the horn.
The Sonata Evolved from the Renaissance canzona, which had several contrasting sections Early in the 17 th century, “sonata” referred to any piece for instruments Later, “sonata” meant a piece for 1 or 2 melody instruments with basso continuo
The Sonata Chamber Sonata: Sonata da Camera A group of dances. Number of movements vary Church Sonata: Sonata da Chiesa Serious collection of pieces Containing polyphonic/contrapuntal texture. Often 4 movements SFSF
The Baroque Sonata Form Four Movements SLOW FAST SLOW FAST
The Sonata Trio Sonata: sonata for any combination of two instruments and basso continuo. (which means 4 players)
Archangelo Corelli ( ) Studied in Bologna- center of violin playing in Northern Italy. Worked in Rome under the patronage of several wealthy benefactors.
The Concerto A three movement piece (FSF) music that is created from two masses or bodies of sound. Concertare – to contend with or to compete with.
The Two Masses of Sound Concertino: small group. Tutti or ripieno: large group (orchestra) tutti (all) ripieno (full)
Three types of concerto Solo concerto: A concerto featuring a soloist contending with an orchestra. Concerto Grosso: A concerto featuring a small group contending with a larger group. Concerto ripieno: A concerto in which all take part; no long solos
Concerto Several contrasting movements 1st movement uses ritornello form Contrast between performing groups is VIMP Orchestra (aka tutti) strings + harpsichord louder dynamics simpler music Soloist(s) 1 to 5 players may feature woodwinds, brass softer dynamics technical, virtuosic vs
Movement 1 fast, energetic, ritornello form Ritornello form a way of arranging musical ideas (melodies?) in a piece
R 1 S 1 R 2 S 2 R 3 S 3 R 4 S 4 etc R X Ritornello Form Ritornello sections played by tutti recurring theme or part of it Solo sections played by soloist(s) new material Contrast between sections is VIMP Ritornello provides unity “musical glue” U U U U CCC CCCCCCC