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© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Rules for the Road 1.General Guidelines 2.Development of: –Multiple Choice –Matching –Fill in Blank –T/F –Essay 2
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Some tests make you crawl out of your skin Stem = Skelton Options = Muscle Some tests make you crawl out of your skin Stem = Skelton Options = Muscle #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. General Guidelines - Multiple Choice Have 4 option choices. No multiple multiples! #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. General Guidelines - Multiple Choice First write the stem then correct option Use the correct option to develop the distractors Distractors – proper grammar/parallel, use “…” #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. General Guidelines - Multiple Choice Options Listed vertically Same length or in ascending length Labeled values – Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 16mg/dL Associated w/ values – ascending or descending order #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. General Guidelines - Multiple Choice Options – rule of two sets of opposites 1.Hypertension 2.Hypotension 3.Insomnia 4.Palpations 1. Tachycardia 2. Bradycardia 3. Hypertension 4. Hypotension Incorrect #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. General Guidelines - Multiple Choice Options 1.Pruritus 2.Redness 3.Bruises 4.Ringing in ears 1.Pruritus 2.Erythema 3.Ecchymosis 4.Tinnitus Incorrect #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. General Guidelines - Multiple Choice Options types: General example Monitoring the client’s cardiovascular status Specific example Monitoring the client’s blood pressure Incorrect #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. General Guidelines - Multiple Choice Distractor development Keep a list -‘Common misconceptions’ that students express in clinical practice -Questions students ask in class -Incorrect answers to short answer Q #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. General Guidelines - Multiple Choice “Best” answer -the options vary in degree of correctness “Correct” answer -one correct w/ 3 incorrect “Priority, first, initial” -ALL correct answers #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Matching 12
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Matching Identifies… Associations between two sets of concepts Relationships between concepts, principles and facts 13
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Matching Disadvantages May encourage rote memorization Difficult to write a group of premises that are homogenous enough to fit with the same set of responses. 14
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Matching Column A Medication __ 1 digoxin (Lanoxin) __ 2 furosemide (Lasix) __ 3 theophylline (Theo-Dur) __ 4 warfarin sodium (Coumadin) Column B Adverse Effect A.Bradycardia B.Dehydration C.Hematuria D.Tachypnea E.Thrombophlebitis PremiseResponse Directions: For each medication in Column A, identify an adverse effect from Column B. Each adverse effect can be used only once. 15
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Matching Write clear, explicit directions for matching the premise with the response columns Always include instructions – if a response can be used once, more than once or not at all 16
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Matching Assign numbers to the premises [scored questions] and letters to the responses 17
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Matching Develop a manageable list of premises and responses Premise list should be no longer than 10 18
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Matching Keep premises longer than responses –A statement or phrase Have one correct response for each premise 19
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Matching If electronic scoring, the responses may be limited to 4 or 5 Include one or two more responses than premises 20
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Matching Keep matching exercise on one page All responses should be of equal length 21
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Matching Arrange responses in a systematic fashion If there is a logical order, arrange in ascending or descending order 22
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Matching Avoid providing cues to students by having homogenous premises and responses 23
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Matching Ask colleague to review matching WITHOUT the key 24
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Advantages 1.Student must produce an answer 2.Easy to construct 3.Efficient to correct 4.Can be used to interpret data, apply rules, solve problems 25
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Disadvantages 1.Spelling challenges 2.Subjectivity possibility 3.Statistical analysis unlikely 26
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Provide clear, concise directions Word carefully for one correct answer 27
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Think of the answer first then write the question Direct question is preferred over completion format 28
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Incomplete sentences the blank should be at the end of the sentence Use one or two blanks at the most 29
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Avoid copying statements from texts The answer should be a key word or concept, not an irrelevant word in the sentence Keep all blanks the same length 30
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Provide space for recording answers on the right margin of the page. This allows for convenience when scoring For computational items, specify degree of precision and the units in which the answer should be expressed 31
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Develop a list of all possible correct answers and use a scoring key to give partial credit when more than one answer is required Give credit when students provide an answer that is correct but is not on your scoring sheet 32
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Clearly communicate your scoring criteria to the students 33
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Lists can test comprehension and higher-order of thinking 34
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Question format - generally preferred over the completion format What activity is a therapist involved in during the evaluation phase of a home visit? _________________________ 35
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Completion format An activity that a therapist does during the evaluation phase of a home visit is ______. During the evaluation phase of the building process, the technician compares data with ______________. 36
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Irrelevant words A dietitian should expect a client who has dementia to have a __________ of being inattentive. 37
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Important words A dietitian should expect a client who has dementia to have a history of ___________. 38
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Scoring Identify three actions that a nurse should include in the plan of care for a client who has the following…. 1. 2. 3. 39
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Fill-in-the-Blank Scoring 1. Identify three actions that a design technician should include in a plan for a client who has ………. A. B. C. 40
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. True/False TF 41
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. True/False Advantages Measures higher-order thinking if properly constructed Greater amount of material tested in a shorter amount of time –75 T/F items in same time as 50 item MC 42
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. True/False Disadvantages 50/50 chance Do not discriminate as well Difficulty writing ‘good’ items 43
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. True/False Write first draft, put to side, review later Every Q should test both content and a course objective 44
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. True/False Each item to test only one idea Statement to be indisputable 45
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. True/False Write rationale in defense of correct answer Remove unnecessary words 46
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. True/False Have approximately equal number of T and F as correct answers on the test. False items are more discriminating than true items because students tend to accept rather reject a statement. 47
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. True/False Keep the length similar Teachers have a tendency to write the true statements longer 48
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. True/False Avoid patterns Avoid repeating the correct answer more than four times in a row [a TTTTT] could cause students to doubt their selection since it doesn’t ‘look’ right 49
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. True/False Effective items can be written in pairs Avoid negative statements 50
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. True/False Avoid specific determiners – always, never, none, or indicate an absolute statement Qualifying words can be used in incorrect statements to better assess – usually, sometime, seldom 51
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. True/False Cluster T/F An initial statement T/F statements afterwards associated with initial statement 52
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Mark each of the actions following the statement: A for include or B for do not include. Which of these instructions should a nurse include when preparing a client to have a colonoscopy? AB “You will have several x-rays taken before the procedure.” A B “You must fast after midnight the night before the test.” AB “You should have someone pick you up after the procedure.” AB “You will have to eat a soft diet for 24 hours after the test.” AB “You will have to take a strong laxative the day before the test.” #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Mark each of the actions following the statement: A for include or B for do not include. Which of these instructions should a nurse include when preparing a client to have a colonoscopy? AB “Several x-rays are taken before the procedure.” A B “After midnight fasting is done the night before the test.” AB “Someone pick you up after the procedure.” AB “For 24 hours after the test eat a soft diet.” AB “A strong laxative will be taken the day before the test.” Can change these to “Select all that Apply” 54 Include DO NOT include
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. True/False Correction T/F Items Decide whether each statement below is correct or incorrect. If it is incorrect, change the underlined word to make the statement correct. T F During the revision of exams, a faculty member should have harder questions on the first page of exams. _______________________________ 55
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Essay Defined by freedom of response: Used to assess complex reasoning and thinking skills #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Essay Increase content sampling - have students answer 4 of 5, not 2 of 6 Indicate a point value for each question #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Essay Tell the students how much time to spend on each item Keep the students alerted to the time remaining during the test Keep tests anonymous #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Essay Use a scoring key or rubric that is shared before the test Read a random sample of papers Select a set of papers that = performance of each level on the rubric ‘anchor papers’ Read the questions in order ‘all papers for Q #1’ #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Essay Do not take off for grammar mistakes Have a colleague to score a sample of papers #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Essay Restricted response – specific problem w/ need for directed and specific responses to solve the problem Example: Explain the pathophysiology of insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus. Identify three manifestations and explain how they are related to the pathophysiology. #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Essay Extended response – offers students an opportunity to organize and express their own ideas Example: Devise a plan for implementing a computer- based documentation on a busy unit where the staff ranges widely in computer ability and resistance to change. Create your own hypothetical situation, describe the actions you would take, and explain the principles behind your actions. #
© 2014 Rollant Concepts, Inc. Essay 63
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