2 What are the stages of test construction What are the stages of test construction??? Take a minute and try to think of these stages???
3 Stages of testing 1- Statement of the problem. It is important to know what you want and for what purpose.What kind of test is it?? Achievement, ..Proficiency...)?What is the purpose of the exam?? (What do you want to know?)What abilities are to be tested?How detailed must the results be? (long, short, detailed knowledge language abilities...)
4 2- Providing a solution to the problem Writing specifications for the testContentYou need to decide the potential content of any versions. What to include in the writing of any version of the test.OperationThe tasks the students should carry out. For example, scan the reading, guess the meaning of the context.
5 Types of textYou need to relate it to the topic and interest. For example, if it is writing, letters, forms, academic essays.AddresseesThe kinds of people that the student is expected to be able to write or speak to. For example, the people for whom reading and listening materials are primarily intended, for example native speaker university students.
6 TopicsTopics are selected according to suitability for the students and the type of test.Format and timingWe need to specify the test structure, including time allocated for each component, item types, and procedures. How many scores should be allocated to each part, how many passages should we include or required.Scoring procedureAre you going to score it subjectively or objectively?
7 3- Writing the test Sampling It is important to sample widely and predictably from the whole content. You should not concentrate on areas that are easy to test. You should sample widely and unpredictably.
8 Item writing and moderations Of course it is difficult to construct perfect test items. It is normal that some of these items should be rejected, or re-written. We can do this through teamwork and asking colleges. We should be open to accept any criticisms.Writing the scoring key
9 Test techniquesDefinition / conditionsA test technique is a mean of eliciting behavior from students which will tell us about their language abilities.We need techniques which :will elicit behavior which indicate the abilities we are interested in.economical in time and effort .have beneficial wash back effect
10 Multiple choice items John has been here ______ half an hour. stem ( complete statement, incomplete statement, question)during b. for c. while d. sinceOptions( one correct – distracters)(The distracters should not be too long, nor too difficult)
11 Advantages of multiple choice items Scoring is reliable.Scoring is fast and economical.The test will be more reliable because we can include more items.
12 Disadvantages of the multiple choice items It tests only recognition knowledge.(production vs. receptive skills)e.g. grammar test ??Guessing may have a considerable effect on test scores.(33% - four options)
13 It restricts what can be tested. (distracters may not be available )It is difficult to write a successful items.(common mistakes: more than one answer, no correct answer, clues in the option, ineffective distracters)Backwash might be harmful.(harmful effect on teaching / learning)Cheating might be facilitated.
14 How to construct a multiple choice item I ……………………... Here for two years.had livedhave livedhave been livinghad been livingEach multiple choice item should have ONLY ONE answer.
15 I never knew where ……………. had the boys gonethe boys have gonehave the boys gonethe boys had goneOne feature at a time should be tested.
16 Someone who designs houses is a …… designerbuilderarchitectplumberEach option should be grammatically correct when placed in the stem.
17 It should be at a level appropriate for the proficiency of the students. It should be brief and clear as possible.
18 ExerciseTake a look at these examples and try to figure out if the following items are good multiple choice items.After the guests , I went to bed.lefthad lefthave leftwould leave
19 I ................. in the class when it began to rain. was sit were sittingwas sittingsitThe present tax reforms have benefited poor.thattheathis
20 Cloze test(Cloze test, C-test , and dictation are used to measure the overall ability in a language)How to write cloze testThe cloze test involves deleting a number of words in a passage, leaving blanks.After short lead-in, it is usually every seventh words which are deleted.
22 Advantages and disadvantages of cloze test Easy to construct, administered and score.DisadvantagesIt is not possible to predict accurately people’s abilities with respect to separate skills.We need careful selection of texts and some pretesting.Can not tell us about oral ability.
23 The C- test How to write C- test C- Test is a variety of cloze test. Instead of deleting the whole word, the second half only is deleted.
25 Advantages Disadvantages Exact scoring is necessary Shorter texts are possible.Wide range of topics, styles, and levels of abilities.It takes little space and less time to complete.DisadvantagesIt has a puzzle-like nature. It is harder to readCorrect answer can be found in the surrounding text
26 Yes/No and True/False items Disadvantage:Encourage guessing (50%)So..??We can ask the students to correct the false statement…however. this might be problematic??1- writing is not meant to be tested here. (validity problem)2- difficult to score (reliability and validity)
27 Short answer items Advantages: guessing contributes less to the students’ scores.it is not restricted by the need of distracters.cheating is more difficult.It is easier to write.
28 Disadvantages:Responses may take longer, so this might reduce the number of items.Students has to produce language in order to respond.Scoring can be invalid or unreliable.Scoring might take longer.
29 Gap filling items It is a valuable technique. It has the same advantages of the short answer techniques , but with greater control.However, it does not work well for grammar and vocabulary ..???