Presentation on theme: "Tier 2 Interventions: Systems, Practices, Data, and Outcomes Lori Lynass, Ed.D. NWPBIS Network www.pbisnetwork.org."— Presentation transcript:
Tier 2 Interventions: Systems, Practices, Data, and Outcomes Lori Lynass, Ed.D. NWPBIS Network
Acknowledgments Hill Walker, U of O Doug Cheney, U of WA Kathleen Lane, Vanderbilt Clay Cook, U of WA Jeff Sprague, U of O Bridget Walker, Seattle U Wendy Iwaszuk, Beach Center, Kansas Tricia Hagerty, Highline Public School
Systems, Data, Practices, Outcomes
Cedarhurst Elementary PBIS
Building the Airplane While Flying It Social and Behavioral Support for All Students
Factors that Place Children At-Risk Biology/physiology Socioeconomic status Family Conflict Family Composition Parenting Style Lack of health care Poor nutrition Frequent moves Temperament Academic failure
Mental Health: What Do We Know? The most common conditions include – Anxiety (31.9%) – Behavior disorders (19.1%) – Mood disorders (14.3%) – Substance use disorders (11.4%) Approximately 40% of individuals meet criteria for multiple disorders. (Merikangas et al., 2010)
Tier 2 Rationale: Early Intervention is Vital Research suggests that there’s a ‘window of opportunity’ ranging between 2-4 years when prevention is critical Great Smoky Mountains Study: Age Between First Symptom and Initial Diagnosis Source: O’Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009
What is a Tier 2 Intervention? An intervention (or set of interventions) known by all staff and available for students during the school day Interventions that provide additional student support in academic, organizational, and/or social support areas
Tier 2 Interventions (Hawken, Vincent, & Schumann, 2008). Assumes a Tier 1 School wide PBIS is in place – SET, BOQ Involves a problem-solving focused behavior support team Screening to identify a % of students non responsive to Tier 1 Readily available and easily accessible Uses efficient, available evidence based practices Includes data-based progress monitoring & decisions Have an entry & exit criteria, with non-responders moving to Tier 3
Goal of Tier 2 Interventions To Make the Problem Behavior: Ineffective Inefficient Irrelevant Unstable * Some of this occurs through changes to the environment.
Tier 2: Small Group Interventions – Social Skills Groups (Redefining Counselor Groups) – Check In/Check Out, Check, Connect & Expect – Executive Functioning Skill Groups – Academic Support Groups – Self-Monitoring
Why do Targeted Interventions Work? Improved structure Prompts are provided throughout the day for correct behavior. System for linking student with at least one positive adult. Student chooses to participate. Student is “set up for success” First contact each morning is positive. “Blow-out” days are pre-empted. First contact each class period (or activity period) is positive. Increase in contingent feedback Feedback occurs more often. Feedback is tied to student behavior. Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or rewarded. SST13 at SWOSERRC
Important Notes About Tier 2 Do not lose sight of Tier 1 Common misperception is that interventions will “fix” the student and the classroom teacher does not need to be an active participant since “specialists” or outside staff are often involved in the intervention Successful interventions will require high level of involvement among ALL staff within the school building
The Tier 2 Team ENTRY, EVALUATE, EXIT Determine & Oversee Referral Process Review Students Referred Monitor Implementation Fidelity Evaluate Outcomes and Make Decisions – Ongoing Progress Monitoring – Fidelity of Implementation – Social Validity
Outcomes Systems: To sustain the implementation Data: For decision making Practices: Evidenced- based and doable SWPBS IMPLEMENTATION DRIVERS
Are We Ready for Tier Two? For Tier Two supports to be most successful, basic components of Tier One should be in place. * Check Classrooms Time must be dedicated for Tier Two to be implemented. Support from staff and admin must be available. Professional development must occur.
Is Tier One in Place in the Classrooms? Classroom-wide positive expectations taught, encouraged & reinforced and match school-wide expectations Teaching classroom routines & cues taught & encouraged Ratio of 4-5 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction Do Staff Agree with and Understand Classroom and Office Managed Behaviors Active supervision Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors Frequent pre-corrections for chronic errors Effective academic instruction & curriculum
Knowing Function of Behavior to Determine Intervention
“Can’t Do versus Won’t Do” Can’t Do or Don’t Know When To Do - Skill Deficit - Performance Deficit - Perception Deficit Won’t Do - Function of Behavior
Can’t Do: Skills Building Social Skills Groups – Assertion Skills, Anger Management, Friendship Skills, Empathy Skills Executive Function Skills Groups – Organization Skills, Emotional Control, Time Management Academic Skills Groups – Context Reading Skills, Math Skills
Three Functions of Behavior Problem Behavior Escape/Avoid SocialActivity PeerAdult Obtain SocialActivityTangible PeerAdult Automatic
We Also Have To Think Functionally When Choosing Interventions “Problem Behaviors” are functional skills Interventions must consider the purpose of behavior (from student’s perspective) Seek a match from intervention menu for the needs of each individual student
It Starts With The Team
Functions of The Tier 2 Team ENTRY, EVALUATE, EXIT Determine & Oversee Referral Process Review Students Referred Monitor Implementation Fidelity Evaluate Outcomes and Make Decisions – Ongoing Progress Monitoring – Fidelity of Implementation – Social Validity
3-Tiered System of Support CICO SSG Exec Func Skills Complex FBA/BIP Problem Solving Team Tertiary Systems Team Brief FBA/ BIP WRAP Secondary Systems Team Plans SW & Class-wide supports Uses Process data; determines overall intervention effectiveness Standing team; uses FBA/BIP process for one youth at a time Uses Process data; determines overall intervention effectiveness Sept. 1, 2009 Universal Team Universal Support
Derby Ridge Elementary Teaming Structure Special Education Team Tier 3 Team Tier Two Team CORE PBIS Team Grade Level Teams
Establishing the Tier 2 Team May be part of the existing PBIS leadership team. May be an extension of the existing PBIS leadership team. May be a stand alone team, often these teams look at Tier 2 & 3. * Such a team may already exist in your school - SIT team, Care team, MDT team.
Tier 2 Team Members Tier 2 Coach PBIS Coordinator Counselor Psychologist Teachers Administrator Other Para-professionals
Team Uses Problem Solving Format intervention.html intervention.html – Instructional Support Team Video – Richland School District (Process Example)
Discussion Tier 2 Team What Tier 2 team format might work best for your school? Who would be on your Tier 2 team? When could this team meet? What would need to happen to create a Tier 2 team? 10 Minutes
Establish Entry Criteria
A team agreed process should be established for how students enter Tier 2 programs. Common entry criteria: – Office Referrals – Teacher Nomination - Through Process – Counselor Nomination – Screening Results
How most schools determine student need for services Office discipline referrals & Teacher/Staff referrals are commonly used Only 2-5% of schools screen all children for mental heath reasons (Romer & McIntosh, 2005)
Office Referral Information But Who Are We Missing?
How Are We Currently Screening For Social Behavior?
Screening for “At-risk” Students
Screening Use of a Validated Screener: – Six-Eight (Oct-Nov) weeks after school begins & in Spring – At the end of the year if desired (provides information for planning) – As a new student enters if needed * Academic Screening Data Also Considered
Choosing A Universal Screener Choose a Screener that: 1.Is appropriate for its intended use and that is contextually and developmentally appropriate and sensitive to issue of diversity 2.Has Technical Adequacy 3.Useable - efficient, feasible, easy to manage - Calderella,Young, Richardson & Young, 2008
Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD; Walker & Severson, 1992) Originally normed K-6, recently normed for middle and Jr High (Calderella,Young, Richardson & Young, 2008) Multiple gating procedures following mental health & PBS model Externalizing and Internalizing dimensions Evidence of efficiency, effectiveness, & cost benefits Exemplary, evidence-based practice US Office of Special Education, Council for Children with Behavior Disorders, National Diffusion Network
Multiple Gating Procedure (Severson et al. 2007) Teachers Rank Order 3 Ext. & 3 Int. Students Teachers Rate Top 3 Students on Critical Events, Adaptive & Maladaptive Scales Gate 1 Gate 2 Pass Gate 1 Classroom & Playground Observations Gate 3 Pass Gate 2 Tier 2,3 Intervention Tier 3 Intervention or Special Ed. Referral
SSBD Screening Internalizing Behaviors Examples – Not talking w other children – Acting in a fearful manner – Not participating – Avoiding or withdrawing – Not standing up for one’s self Non-examples – Initiating social interactions – Having conversations – Joining in with others Externalizing Behaviors Examples – Displaying aggression – Arguing – Defying the teacher – Being out of seat – Disturbing others Non-examples – Cooperating – Sharing – Working on tasks
SSBD: Sample Questions Critical Events (Behavioral Earthquakes): – Sets Fires, – Vomits after eating, – Exhibits painful shyness Maladaptive Behavior – Requires punishment before s/he will terminate behavior. – Child tests teacher imposed limits. Adaptive Behavior – Is considerate of the feelings of others. – Is socially perceptive.
SSBD Differentiates Grads, Non-grads, Comparisons GraduatesNon-GraduatesComparison SSBD Critical Events 5.9 (2.8)5.4 (3.0)5.2 (2.8) SSBD Maladaptive31.2 (10.5) a 37.2 (5.7) b 32.2 (7.8) a SSBD Adaptive32.3 (8.0) a 28.0 (4.8) b 30.6 (6.8) a
Student Risk Screening Scale (Drummond, 1994) Originally normed at elementary level, recently normed at middle and high school (Lane, Kalberg, Parks, & Carter, 2008) – Classroom teacher evaluates and assigns a frequency-based, Likert rating to each student in the class in relation to seven behavioral criteria – Score indicates the level of risk (low, medium, high) Scores predict both negative academic and behavioral outcomes Effective, Efficient and Free
Student Internalizing Behavior Screener (SIBS, Cook et al. 2008) Normed K-12 Grade. Rates on 7 Items: Nervous or Fearful Bullied by Peers Spends Time Alone Clings to Adults Withdrawn Seems Sad or Unhappy Complains About Being Sick or Hurt – Rated on a 4-point Likert scale (never, seldom, sometimes, frequently)
BASC- Behavior and Emotional Screening Scale (BESS, Pearson Publications) Based on BASC by Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2002 Universal screener with norms for preschool & K-12, Includes teacher, parent, and self-rating forms grades minutes per form. Completed on all students in class. Hand scored and scannable forms (in spanish too), ASSIST software available Provides comprehensive summary of student scores and teacher ratings across the school Assessment of a wide array of behaviors that represent both behavioral problems and strengths, including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, school problems, and adaptive skills.
Sample of BASC-2/BESS Form
Administration & Scoring Criteria The BASC-2/BESS uses T-scores to communicate results relative to the average (mean=50) Identifiers and percentile ranks are provided for ease of interpretation Normal risk level: T-score range Elevated risk level: T-score range Extremely Elevated risk level: T-score range ≥ 71
Screening Activity 10 Minutes
What Are Your Initial Thoughts? What Other Information Might You Seek? If You Have 3 Slots for Tier 2, Whom Do You Serve First?
In Addition to Screening Consider: Teacher/Counselor/Parent Request Forms Office Referral Data Academic Data Classroom Minor Data Attendance
Questions to Consider When to do screening? Who should prepare the forms? Who should administer the screener? Who should score them? When and how should the results be shared?
We Have Screened, Now What? Make Sure You Have A Plan For What to Do Once You Screen..
2009 Bridget Walker, Ph.D.
Sample List of Students Identified Through Schoolwide Screening How could this information help you determine where your limited support resources should focus? Bridget Walker, Ph.D.
Monitoring Effectiveness and Fidelity of Tier 2 Interventions Fidelity Checklist A good plan implemented poorly… is a bad plan.
Monitoring Progress In Tier 2 Each Student Should Be Monitored Weekly and Discussed Twice Monthly to Determine : – If they are responding to the intervention – If the intervention is the correct intervention – If the intervention needs to be adjusted – If the student is ready to exit
SWIS-CICO Report Daily Points Graph
Monitoring Fidelity of Tier 2 Interventions Core features of interventions should be adhered to. The fidelity of Tier 2 programs should be monitored by the Tier 2 team. Look over the Tier 2/3 Tracking Tool and Systems-Response Tool.
Monitoring All Interventions
Tier 2: Summary of The Big Ideas Do the easy stuff first (efficiency is a major goal) Processes are as important as practices Use of Evidence Based Practices based on Behavioral Science Teaming is critical Administrative support is critical Data Based Decision Making