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Tier 2 Interventions: Systems, Practices, Data, and Outcomes

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Presentation on theme: "Tier 2 Interventions: Systems, Practices, Data, and Outcomes"— Presentation transcript:

1 Tier 2 Interventions: Systems, Practices, Data, and Outcomes
Lori Lynass, Ed.D. NWPBIS Network

2 Acknowledgments Hill Walker, U of O Doug Cheney, U of WA
Kathleen Lane, Vanderbilt Clay Cook, U of WA Jeff Sprague, U of O Bridget Walker, Seattle U Wendy Iwaszuk, Beach Center, Kansas Tricia Hagerty, Highline Public School

3 Systems, Data, Practices, Outcomes

4 Cedarhurst Elementary PBIS

5 Building the Airplane While Flying It
Social and Behavioral Support for All Students

6 Factors that Place Children At-Risk
Biology/physiology Socioeconomic status Family Conflict Family Composition Parenting Style Lack of health care Poor nutrition Frequent moves Temperament Academic failure

7 Mental Health: What Do We Know?
The most common conditions include Anxiety (31.9%) Behavior disorders (19.1%) Mood disorders (14.3%) Substance use disorders (11.4%) Approximately 40% of individuals meet criteria for multiple disorders. (Merikangas et al., 2010)

8 Tier 2 Rationale: Early Intervention is Vital
Research suggests that there’s a ‘window of opportunity’ ranging between 2-4 years when prevention is critical Great Smoky Mountains Study: Age Between First Symptom and Initial Diagnosis Original source: Costello, E.J., Angold, A., Burns, B.J., Stangl, D.K., Tweed, D.L, Erkanli, A., and Worthman, C.M. (1996). The Great Smoky Mountains Study of Youth: Goals, Design, Methods, and the Prevalence of DSM-III-R Disorders. Unpublished manuscript, Developmental Epidemiology Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, and the Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA. Source: O’Connell, Boat, & Warner, 2009

9 What is a Tier 2 Intervention?
An intervention (or set of interventions) known by all staff and available for students during the school day Interventions that provide additional student support in academic, organizational, and/or social support areas

10 Tier 2 Interventions (Hawken, Vincent, & Schumann, 2008).
Assumes a Tier 1 School wide PBIS is in place – SET, BOQ Involves a problem-solving focused behavior support team Screening to identify a % of students non responsive to Tier 1 Readily available and easily accessible Uses efficient, available evidence based practices Includes data-based progress monitoring & decisions Have an entry & exit criteria, with non-responders moving to Tier 3 10

11 Goal of Tier 2 Interventions
To Make the Problem Behavior: Ineffective Inefficient Irrelevant Unstable * Some of this occurs through changes to the environment. 11

12 Tier 2: Small Group Interventions
Social Skills Groups (Redefining Counselor Groups) Check In/Check Out, Check, Connect & Expect Executive Functioning Skill Groups Academic Support Groups Self-Monitoring

13 Why do Targeted Interventions Work?
Improved structure Prompts are provided throughout the day for correct behavior. System for linking student with at least one positive adult. Student chooses to participate. Student is “set up for success” First contact each morning is positive. “Blow-out” days are pre-empted. First contact each class period (or activity period) is positive. Increase in contingent feedback Feedback occurs more often. Feedback is tied to student behavior. Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or rewarded. SST13 at SWOSERRC SST13 at SWOSERRC

14 Important Notes About Tier 2
Important Notes About Tier 2 Do not lose sight of Tier 1 Common misperception is that interventions will “fix” the student and the classroom teacher does not need to be an active participant since “specialists” or outside staff are often involved in the intervention Successful interventions will require high level of involvement among ALL staff within the school building SST13 at SWOSERRC

15 The Tier 2 Team ENTRY, EVALUATE, EXIT
Determine & Oversee Referral Process Review Students Referred Monitor Implementation Fidelity Evaluate Outcomes and Make Decisions Ongoing Progress Monitoring Fidelity of Implementation Social Validity

Data: For decision making Systems: To sustain the implementation Practices: Evidenced-based and doable Outcomes

17 Are We Ready for Tier Two?
For Tier Two supports to be most successful, basic components of Tier One should be in place. * Check Classrooms Time must be dedicated for Tier Two to be implemented. Support from staff and admin must be available. Professional development must occur.

18 Is Tier One in Place in the Classrooms?
Classroom-wide positive expectations taught, encouraged & reinforced and match school-wide expectations Teaching classroom routines & cues taught & encouraged Ratio of 4-5 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction Do Staff Agree with and Understand Classroom and Office Managed Behaviors Active supervision Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors Frequent pre-corrections for chronic errors Effective academic instruction & curriculum

19 Knowing Function of Behavior to Determine Intervention

20 “Can’t Do versus Won’t Do”
Can’t Do or Don’t Know When To Do - Skill Deficit - Performance Deficit - Perception Deficit Won’t Do - Function of Behavior

21 Can’t Do: Skills Building
Social Skills Groups Assertion Skills, Anger Management, Friendship Skills, Empathy Skills Executive Function Skills Groups Organization Skills, Emotional Control, Time Management Academic Skills Groups Context Reading Skills, Math Skills

22 Three Functions of Behavior
Problem Behavior Escape/Avoid Social Activity Peer Adult Obtain Tangible Automatic

23 We Also Have To Think Functionally When Choosing Interventions
“Problem Behaviors” are functional skills Interventions must consider the purpose of behavior (from student’s perspective) Seek a match from intervention menu for the needs of each individual student

24 It Starts With The Team

25 Functions of The Tier 2 Team
ENTRY, EVALUATE, EXIT Determine & Oversee Referral Process Review Students Referred Monitor Implementation Fidelity Evaluate Outcomes and Make Decisions Ongoing Progress Monitoring Fidelity of Implementation Social Validity

26 3-Tiered System of Support Secondary Systems Team
Universal Team Secondary Systems Team Problem Solving Team Tertiary Systems Team Uses Process data; determines overall intervention effectiveness Uses Process data; determines overall intervention effectiveness Plans SW & Class-wide supports Standing team; uses FBA/BIP process for one youth at a time CICO Universal Support Brief FBA/BIP SSG Complex FBA/BIP WRAP Exec Func Skills Sept. 1, 2009 26 26

27 Derby Ridge Elementary Teaming Structure
Special Education Team Tier 3 Team Tier Two Team CORE PBIS Team Grade Level Teams

28 Establishing the Tier 2 Team
May be part of the existing PBIS leadership team. May be an extension of the existing PBIS leadership team. May be a stand alone team, often these teams look at Tier 2 & 3. * Such a team may already exist in your school - SIT team, Care team, MDT team.

29 Tier 2 Team Members Tier 2 Coach PBIS Coordinator Counselor
Psychologist Teachers Administrator Other Para-professionals

30 Team Uses Problem Solving Format
Instructional Support Team Video Richland School District (Process Example)

31 Discussion Tier 2 Team 10 Minutes What Tier 2 team format might work best for your school? Who would be on your Tier 2 team? When could this team meet? What would need to happen to create a Tier 2 team?

32 Establish Entry Criteria

33 Establish Entry Criteria
A team agreed process should be established for how students enter Tier 2 programs. Common entry criteria: Office Referrals Teacher Nomination - Through Process Counselor Nomination Screening Results

34 How most schools determine student need for services
Office discipline referrals & Teacher/Staff referrals are commonly used Only 2-5% of schools screen all children for mental heath reasons (Romer & McIntosh, 2005)

35 Office Referral Information
But Who Are We Missing?

36 How Are We Currently Screening For Social Behavior?

37 Screening for “At-risk” Students

38 Screening Use of a Validated Screener:
Six-Eight (Oct-Nov) weeks after school begins & in Spring At the end of the year if desired (provides information for planning) As a new student enters if needed * Academic Screening Data Also Considered

39 Choosing A Universal Screener
Choose a Screener that: Is appropriate for its intended use and that is contextually and developmentally appropriate and sensitive to issue of diversity Has Technical Adequacy Useable - efficient, feasible, easy to manage - Calderella,Young, Richardson & Young, 2008

40 Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD; Walker & Severson, 1992)
Originally normed K-6, recently normed for middle and Jr High (Calderella,Young, Richardson & Young, 2008) Multiple gating procedures following mental health & PBS model Externalizing and Internalizing dimensions Evidence of efficiency, effectiveness, & cost benefits Exemplary, evidence-based practice US Office of Special Education, Council for Children with Behavior Disorders, National Diffusion Network

41 Multiple Gating Procedure (Severson et al. 2007)
Teachers Rank Order 3 Ext. & 3 Int. Students Gate 1 Pass Gate 1 Teachers Rate Top 3 Students on Critical Events, Adaptive & Maladaptive Scales Gate 2 Tier 2,3 Intervention Pass Gate 2 Gate 3 Classroom & Playground Observations Tier 3 Intervention or Special Ed. Referral

42 SSBD Screening Internalizing Behaviors Externalizing Behaviors
Examples Not talking w other children Acting in a fearful manner Not participating Avoiding or withdrawing Not standing up for one’s self Non-examples Initiating social interactions Having conversations Joining in with others Examples Displaying aggression Arguing Defying the teacher Being out of seat Disturbing others Non-examples Cooperating Sharing Working on tasks

43 SSBD: Sample Questions
Critical Events (Behavioral Earthquakes): Sets Fires, Vomits after eating, Exhibits painful shyness Maladaptive Behavior Requires punishment before s/he will terminate behavior. Child tests teacher imposed limits. Adaptive Behavior Is considerate of the feelings of others. Is socially perceptive.

44 SSBD Differentiates Grads , Non-grads, Comparisons
Graduates Non-Graduates Comparison SSBD Critical Events 5.9 (2.8) 5.4 (3.0) 5.2 (2.8) SSBD Maladaptive 31.2 (10.5) a 37.2 (5.7) b 32.2 (7.8) a SSBD Adaptive 32.3 (8.0) a 28.0 (4.8) b 30.6 (6.8) a

45 Student Risk Screening Scale (Drummond, 1994)
Originally normed at elementary level, recently normed at middle and high school (Lane, Kalberg, Parks, & Carter, 2008) Classroom teacher evaluates and assigns a frequency-based, Likert rating to each student in the class in relation to seven behavioral criteria Score indicates the level of risk (low, medium, high) Scores predict both negative academic and behavioral outcomes Effective, Efficient and Free 45 45

46 Student Risk Screening Scale (Drummond, 1994)
lies, cheats, sneaks, steals, behavior problems, peer rejections, low achievement, negative attitude, Aggressive. Rated on a 4-point Likert scale (never, seldom, sometimes, frequently)


48 Student Internalizing Behavior Screener (SIBS, Cook et al. 2008)
Normed K-12 Grade. Rates on 7 Items: Nervous or Fearful Bullied by Peers Spends Time Alone Clings to Adults Withdrawn Seems Sad or Unhappy Complains About Being Sick or Hurt Rated on a 4-point Likert scale (never, seldom, sometimes, frequently)

49 BASC- Behavior and Emotional Screening Scale (BESS, Pearson Publications)
Based on BASC by Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2002 Universal screener with norms for preschool & K-12, Includes teacher, parent, and self-rating forms grades minutes per form. Completed on all students in class. Hand scored and scannable forms (in spanish too), ASSIST software available Provides comprehensive summary of student scores and teacher ratings across the school Assessment of a wide array of behaviors that represent both behavioral problems and strengths, including internalizing problems, externalizing problems, school problems, and adaptive skills. 49 49

50 Sample of BASC-2/BESS Form

51 Administration & Scoring Criteria
The BASC-2/BESS uses T-scores to communicate results relative to the average (mean=50) Identifiers and percentile ranks are provided for ease of interpretation Normal risk level: T-score range 10-60 Elevated risk level: T-score range 61-70 Extremely Elevated risk level: T-score range ≥ 71

52 10 Minutes Screening Activity

53 What Are Your Initial Thoughts?
What Other Information Might You Seek? If You Have 3 Slots for Tier 2, Whom Do You Serve First?

54 In Addition to Screening Consider:
Teacher/Counselor/Parent Request Forms Office Referral Data Academic Data Classroom Minor Data Attendance

55 Questions to Consider When to do screening?
Who should prepare the forms? Who should administer the screener? Who should score them? When and how should the results be shared? 55

56 We Have Screened, Now What?
Make Sure You Have A Plan For What to Do Once You Screen..

57  2009 Bridget Walker, Ph.D. 57 57

58 Sample List of Students Identified Through Schoolwide Screening
How could this information help you determine where your limited support resources should focus? Bridget Walker, Ph.D. 58 58

59 Monitoring Effectiveness and Fidelity of Tier 2 Interventions
A good plan implemented poorly… is a bad plan. Monitoring Effectiveness and Fidelity of Tier 2 Interventions Fidelity Checklist

60 Monitoring Progress In Tier 2
Each Student Should Be Monitored Weekly and Discussed Twice Monthly to Determine : If they are responding to the intervention If the intervention is the correct intervention If the intervention needs to be adjusted If the student is ready to exit

61 SWIS-CICO Report Daily Points Graph



64 Monitoring Fidelity of Tier 2 Interventions
Core features of interventions should be adhered to. The fidelity of Tier 2 programs should be monitored by the Tier 2 team. Look over the Tier 2/3 Tracking Tool and Systems-Response Tool.

65 Monitoring All Interventions

66 Tier 2: Summary of The Big Ideas
Do the easy stuff first (efficiency is a major goal) Processes are as important as practices Use of Evidence Based Practices based on Behavioral Science Teaming is critical Administrative support is critical Data Based Decision Making

67 Some Students Just Need A Little More Support

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