Presentation on theme: "An Evidence-based Intervention for Tier II Supports"— Presentation transcript:
1 An Evidence-based Intervention for Tier II Supports Check In, Check OutAn Evidence-based Intervention for Tier II Supports
2 Educational and Community Supports Educational and Community Supports (ECS) is a research unit within the College of Education at the University of Oregon.ECS focuses on the development and implementation of practices that result in positive, durable, and scientifically substantiated change in the lives of individuals.Federal and state funded projects support research, teaching, dissemination, and technical assistance.PBIS Applications is a series of educational tools created within ECS and related to the implementation of multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS).The PBIS Application tools have been utilized in 25,000+ schools both domestically and internationally.
3 Session Intentions Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) Multi-Tiered Systems of Support and PreventionVarying intensities of instruction and interventionFocus of Tier IICritical Features of Tier II SupportsCoordinating TeamUniversal ScreeningAssessment for Intervention SelectionProgress MonitoringFidelity of ImplementationCheck In, Check Out (CICO)Research and supportCore featuresProgress monitoring
4 Essential Components of RTI Response to intervention (RTI) integrates assessment and intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and reduce behavior problems.--National Center on Response to InterventionThe intent of RTI is to improve outcomes for all students while providing immediate supplemental supports for students at risk for poor learning outcomes.
5 Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Tertiary—intensive, individualizedSecondary—targeted, small groupUniversal—primary preventionMulti-level prevention system includes three levels of intensity or prevention. The primary prevention level includes high quality core instruction. The secondary level includes evidence-based intervention(s) of moderate intensity. The tertiary prevention level includes individualized intervention(s) of increased intensity for students who show minimal response to secondary prevention.--National Center on Response to InterventionIn reality, the triangle does not represent the overall RTI framework; it only represents one component, the multi-level prevention system.
6 Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) The triangle does not represent the overall RTI or SWPBIS framework; it only represents one component, the multi- tiered system of support and prevention.This component represents three levels of prevention.In an effective system, we would expect:Universal Level = at least 80%If less than 80%, consider focusing school improvement efforts on improving core instruction and curriculum.Secondary Level = 10-15%Tertiary Level = 1-5%
7 Multi-Tiered Support & Prevention Essential Question:Is the student successful at this level of support?Students themselves do not fit into a tier of supports; instead, their needs are addressed at the tiers provided.Intensity is a two-way street. Improved student outcomes are the result of continually monitoring and modifying (as needed) instructional programs and methods.WritingReadingSocial-EmotionalMath
8 Secondary (Tier II) Systems of Support Secondary Support LevelFocus = students identified through screening as being at-risk for poor learning outcomes; students unresponsive to the core curriculumInstruction = targeted, supplemental instruction delivered to small groupsSetting = general environmentAssessments = continuous progress monitoring, diagnosticSecondary prevention represents evidence-based intervention(s) of moderate intensity that addresses the learning or behavioral challenges of most at-risk students.Diagnostic assessments are used to identify skill deficits and occur before an intervention. Diagnostic assessments can tell you what to teach and help to identify interventions.
9 Secondary (Tier II) Systems of Support The goal of secondary supports is to provide efficient supports for a large number of students with similar needs.Efficiency is achieved by using ongoing, generic interventions.Programming should be applicable to large numbers of students in the same way, with little to no individualization.Secondary interventions should provide:Additional instruction/time for student skill developmentAdditional structure/predictabilityIncreased opportunity for feedback
10 Response to Intervention RTI and SWPBISSYSTEMSPRACTICESDATAImproved student outcomes in social competence and academic achievement.Systems support staff behavior.Practices support student behavior.Data support decision making.OUTCOMESResponse to InterventionSchool-wide PBIS
11 Systems, Data, and Practices Improved OutcomesSocial Competence & Academic AchievementSYSTEMSPRACTICESDATAOUTCOMESSystems to Support Staff BehaviorAdministrative support, team-based leadership, data-based decision making systemsPractices to Support Student BehaviorDefine & teach procedures, Daily Progress Report for progress monitoring, sharing of progress reports with home, acknowledgement of appropriate behaviors, systematic correction of behavior errors, data-based decision makingDataData entry, report generation, data-based decision making
12 Fundamentals of Tier II Support Systems TeamUniversal ScreeningAssessment for Intervention SelectionProgress MonitoringFidelity of Implementation
13 Team Secondary supports are often overseen by a team charged with: Pre-referral consultationScreeningAssessmentProgress MonitoringIntervention ImplementationTier II teams need individuals with specific skill sets (i.e., behavior expertise, administrative authority) and perspectives (i.e., knowledge about school operations) to implement with success.
14 Universal ScreeningNot all students will respond to universal systems.The purpose of screening is to identify those students who are at risk for poor learning outcomes.The focus is on all students, not just those students that teachers believe are at risk.It is a brief, reliable, valid assessment used to identify which students may need additional assessments or additional instructional support.Screening is conducted to identify or predict students who may be at risk for poor learning outcomes. Universal screening assessments are typically brief, conducted with all students at a grade level, and followed by additional testing or short-term progress monitoring to corroborate students’ risk status.--National Center on Response to InterventionScreeners are a means of casting the net wide and seeing who shakes out. It’s checking the dipstick. It’s a temperature check. It’s a blood pressure check. It’s merely one indicator. It will necessitate additional information to corroborate the students’ risk status.Use screening to identify and address potential problems early in order to prevent bigger problems in the future. The purpose is to identify indicators that predict if more testing or further intervention is needed.Regular screening is necessary throughout the year for ALL in order to catch students who may have been doing well at the beginning, but are struggling as the demands increase.
15 Universal ScreeningBrief assessment to determine students’ current level of performanceCollect information on all students at least twice a yearAfter the first 6 weeks of the new school year and 6 weeks after the return from winter breakUse data-decision rules for decision making:For behavior, common screening measures include office discipline referrals (ODRs; Sugai, Sprague, Horner, & Walker, 2000).ODRs are not valid indicators of “internalizing” problem behavior, such as anxiety and depression (McIntosh, Campbell, Carter, & Zumbo, 2009). Green zone = 0-1 ODRs Yellow zone = 2-5 ODRs Red zone = 6+ ODRsScreening is conducted to identify or predict students who may be at risk for poor learning outcomes. Universal screening assessments are typically brief, conducted with all students at a grade level, and followed by additional testing or short-term progress monitoring to corroborate students’ risk status.--National Center on Response to InterventionScreeners are a means of casting the net wide and seeing who shakes out. It’s checking the dipstick. It’s a temperature check. It’s a blood pressure check. It’s merely one indicator. It will necessitate additional information to corroborate the students’ risk status.Use screening to identify and address potential problems early in order to prevent bigger problems in the future. The purpose is to identify indicators that predict if more testing or further intervention is needed.Regular screening is necessary throughout the year for ALL in order to catch students who may have been doing well at the beginning, but are struggling as the demands increase.
16 Cumulative Mean ODRs Per Month for 325+ Elementary Schools 08-09 Jennifer Frank, Kent McIntosh, Seth MayCumulative Mean ODRs
17 Cumulative Mean ODRs Per Month for 325+ Elementary Schools 08-09 Jennifer Frank, Kent McIntosh, Seth MayCumulative Mean ODRs
18 Assessment for Intervention Selection Additional information is often required to select the appropriate intervention, described as diagnostic testing (Salvia, Ysseldyke, & Bolt, 2009).Diagnostic testing refers to assessment of problem analysis and function of behavior, with a focus on variables that can be changed (Christ, 2008; Tilly 2008).Function-based Problem Solving vs. Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
19 Assessment for Intervention Selection Alignment with core curriculum3-5 behavioral expectationsEvidence-based InterventionsInterventions for which data from scientific, rigorous research designs have demonstrated (or empirically validated) the efficacy of the intervention.Big Idea: the intervention has shown to improve the results for students who receive the interventionResearch-based CurriculaMay incorporate design features that have been research generally; however, the curriculum or program as a whole has not been studied using a rigorous research design.--National Center on Response to Intervention
20 Big “I” Interventions vs. Little “i” Interventions If we are employing practices and referring to them as interventions, we should also be monitoring them with data.Data in and data out.
21 Major Features of Secondary Interventions Intervention is continuously availableRapid access to intervention (3 days)Very low effort by teachersConsistent with school-wide expectationsImplemented by all staff/faculty in a schoolHome/school linkageFlexible intervention matched to function of behavior
22 Progress Monitoring Allows practitioners to answer critical questions: Are students making progress at an acceptable rate?Quantify student rates of improvement or responsiveness to instructionAre students meeting short-term goals necessary for achieving long-term goals?Identify students who are not making adequate progressDoes the instruction need to be adjusted or changed?Evaluate instructional effectiveness.Progress monitoring is used to assess students’ academic performance, to quantify a student rate of improvement or responsiveness to instruction, and to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction.--National Center on Response to InterventionThe purpose of progress monitoring is to monitor students’ response to primary, secondary, and tertiary instruction.Progress monitoring allows practitioners to estimate rates of student improvement, identify students
23 Progress MonitoringContinuous Progress Monitoring to confirm risk status and monitor progress of at-risk studentsCollection of data on a monthly, weekly, daily rateUse of data for decision makingIn academic and behavior supports, it is important to monitor student progress to determine whether students are performing behaviors (e.g., decoding, requesting attention) correctly and whether those responses meet a standard for acceptable quality.Frequent monitoring allows school personnel to intervene early to correct errors and encourage students to continue correct responding.
24 Data-Based Decision Making Utility and value:InstructionWho needs assistance?What type of instruction or assistance is needed?Is the duration and intensity sufficient?Movement within the Multiple LevelsWhen are students moved to something more/less intensive?Who is responding and/or not responding?Disability IdentificationWhen do you refer for special education evaluation?How does this student compare to his/her peers?What appropriate instruction received by the student?Data analysis and decision making occur at all levels of RTI implementation and all levels of instruction. Teams use screening and progress monitoring data to make decisions about instruction, movement within the multi-level prevention system, and disability identification (in accordance with state law).--National Center on Response to Intervention
25 Fidelity of Implementation Without considering fidelity of implementation, it is unknown:whether students fail to respond to secondary supports.if staff have failed to provide adequate supports.Meeting time devoted to monitoring and improving fidelity of implementation may seem like time better spent discussing student progress, but is a valuable and critical investment of resources for all students.
26 Check In, Check Out (CICO) Evidence-based interventionEvidence that schools can successfully implementEvidence of decreased problem behaviorEvidence of effectiveness for 60-75% of students in need of secondary supports(Crone, Horner, & Hawken, 2004)
27 CICO ResearchMore effective with students with attention-maintained problem behavior(March & Horner, 2002; McIntosh, et. al., 2009; Campbell & Anderson, 2008)Effective across behavioral functions(Hawken, O’Neill, & MacLeod, 2011)Students who do not respond to CICO may benefit from function-based, individualized interventions(Fairbanks, et. al., 2007; March & Horner, 2002; Macleod, Hawken, & O’Neill, 2010)
28 Check In, Check Out (CICO) Behavioral Priming/Behavioral MomentumStart each school day positivelyStart each class positivelyStudent recruitment of contingent adult attentionPredictabilitySelf-managementData-based Decision MakingHigh level of efficiency
29 CICO Intervention Overview Increased StructurePrompts for correct behavior throughout the daySystematic linking of a student with at least one positive adultIncreased opportunity for feedbackPerformance feedback related to student behaviorHigh rates of adult attentionInappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or reinforced
30 CICO Intervention Overview Increased PredictabilityEach day begins with a positive contactEach class/period begins with a positive contactStudent is continuously set up for successSystematic communication between school and homeIncreased time for student skill developmentIncreased ability to self-monitor progress/performanceOrganized to fade into a self-management system
31 CICO Intervention Overview Elevated recognition for appropriate behaviorAdult attention delivered at the start and end of the dayAdult attention delivered during each targeted periodProgram can be applied in all supervised locationsClassroom and non-classroom settings
32 CICO Cycle Student Identified for CICO CICO Implemented CICO Coordinator summarizes data for decision makingMorning Check InFamilyFeedbackRegularTeacherFeedbackFrequently scheduled meetings to analyze student progressAfternoon Check OutContinue ProgramRevise ProgramExitProgram
33 Cycle of Feedback Morning Check In Regular Teacher Feedback Start school day positivelyCheck student “status”Check Daily Progress Report (DPR) that was sent homeProvide new DPR for the current dayRegular Teacher FeedbackStart each class positivelyComplete DPRProvide feedback to student at the end of period in relation to CICO goals
34 Cycle of Feedback Afternoon Check Out Parent Feedback End school day positively and encourage for tomorrowReview the completed Daily Progress ReportRecord points in CICO-SWISSend communication home to family regarding the CICO dayParent FeedbackStudent shares DPR with parent/familyParent provides positive feedback and encouragementParent communicates with schoolExample: signed DPR
36 Team Meeting and Progress Monitoring Review student progressAdjust support plan if no improvement within one weekBuild self-management steps when appropriateExit when appropriateReport to school-wide team, administration, and whole faculty
37 CICO Progress Monitoring How is each student doing in relation to the school-wide goal?
38 CICO Progress Monitoring What is one student’s pattern over time?
39 CICO Progress Monitoring What does one student’s average day look like?
40 CICO Progress Monitoring What is one student’s pattern over time in a single period?
42 Linking Academic and Behavior Supports Effective school-wide and classroom-wide behavior support is linked to increased academic engagement.Improved academic engagement with effective instruction is linked to improved academic outcomes.The systems needed to implement effective academic supports and effective behavior supports are very similar:Clear Goals and Expected OutcomesAppropriate InstructionFeedback and EncouragementError CorrectionMonitoring
43 Session Intentions Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) Multi-Tiered Systems of Support and PreventionVarying intensities of instruction and interventionFocus of Tier IICritical Features of Tier II SupportsCoordinating TeamUniversal ScreeningAssessment for Intervention SelectionProgress MonitoringFidelity of ImplementationCheck In, Check Out (CICO)Research and supportCore featuresProgress monitoring