Presentation on theme: "An Evidence-based Intervention for Tier II Supports Check In, Check Out."— Presentation transcript:
An Evidence-based Intervention for Tier II Supports Check In, Check Out
Educational and Community Supports (ECS) is a research unit within the College of Education at the University of Oregon. ECS focuses on the development and implementation of practices that result in positive, durable, and scientifically substantiated change in the lives of individuals. Federal and state funded projects support research, teaching, dissemination, and technical assistance. PBIS Applications is a series of educational tools created within ECS and related to the implementation of multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS). The PBIS Application tools have been utilized in 25,000+ schools both domestically and internationally. Educational and Community Supports
Essential Components of RTI Response to intervention (RTI) integrates assessment and intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and reduce behavior problems. --National Center on Response to Intervention The intent of RTI is to improve outcomes for all students while providing immediate supplemental supports for students at risk for poor learning outcomes.
Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Tertiary—intensive, individualized Secondary—targeted, small group Universal—primary prevention
The triangle does not represent the overall RTI or SWPBIS framework; it only represents one component, the multi- tiered system of support and prevention. This component represents three levels of prevention. In an effective system, we would expect: Universal Level = at least 80% If less than 80%, consider focusing school improvement efforts on improving core instruction and curriculum. Secondary Level = 10-15% Tertiary Level = 1-5% Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS)
Multi-Tiered Support & Prevention Essential Question: Is the student successful at this level of support? Students themselves do not fit into a tier of supports; instead, their needs are addressed at the tiers provided. Intensity is a two-way street. Improved student outcomes are the result of continually monitoring and modifying (as needed) instructional programs and methods. Math Reading Social-Emotional Writing
Secondary Support Level Focus = students identified through screening as being at-risk for poor learning outcomes; students unresponsive to the core curriculum Instruction = targeted, supplemental instruction delivered to small groups Setting = general environment Assessments = continuous progress monitoring, diagnostic Secondary (Tier II) Systems of Support
The goal of secondary supports is to provide efficient supports for a large number of students with similar needs. Efficiency is achieved by using ongoing, generic interventions. Programming should be applicable to large numbers of students in the same way, with little to no individualization. Secondary interventions should provide: Additional instruction/time for student skill development Additional structure/predictability Increased opportunity for feedback Secondary (Tier II) Systems of Support
RTI and SWPBIS SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Improved student outcomes in social competence and academic achievement. Systems support staff behavior. Practices support student behavior. Data support decision making. OUTCOMES Response to Intervention School-wide PBIS
Systems, Data, and Practices SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA OUTCOMES Improved Outcomes Social Competence & Academic Achievement Systems to Support Staff Behavior Administrative support, team-based leadership, data- based decision making systems Practices to Support Student Behavior Define & teach procedures, Daily Progress Report for progress monitoring, sharing of progress reports with home, acknowledgement of appropriate behaviors, systematic correction of behavior errors, data-based decision making Data Data entry, report generation, data-based decision making
Fundamentals of Tier II Support Systems
Team Secondary supports are often overseen by a team charged with: Pre-referral consultation Screening Assessment Progress Monitoring Intervention Implementation Tier II teams need individuals with specific skill sets (i.e., behavior expertise, administrative authority) and perspectives (i.e., knowledge about school operations) to implement with success.
Universal Screening Not all students will respond to universal systems. The purpose of screening is to identify those students who are at risk for poor learning outcomes. The focus is on all students, not just those students that teachers believe are at risk. It is a brief, reliable, valid assessment used to identify which students may need additional assessments or additional instructional support.
Brief assessment to determine students’ current level of performance Collect information on all students at least twice a year After the first 6 weeks of the new school year and 6 weeks after the return from winter break Use data-decision rules for decision making: For behavior, common screening measures include office discipline referrals (ODRs; Sugai, Sprague, Horner, & Walker, 2000). ODRs are not valid indicators of “internalizing” problem behavior, such as anxiety and depression (McIntosh, Campbell, Carter, & Zumbo, 2009). Universal Screening Green zone = 0-1 ODRs Yellow zone = 2-5 ODRs Red zone = 6+ ODRs
Cumulative Mean ODRs Per Month for 325+ Elementary Schools Jennifer Frank, Kent McIntosh, Seth May Cumulative Mean ODRs
Cumulative Mean ODRs Per Month for 325+ Elementary Schools Jennifer Frank, Kent McIntosh, Seth May Cumulative Mean ODRs
Additional information is often required to select the appropriate intervention, described as diagnostic testing (Salvia, Ysseldyke, & Bolt, 2009). Diagnostic testing refers to assessment of problem analysis and function of behavior, with a focus on variables that can be changed (Christ, 2008; Tilly 2008). Function-based Problem Solving vs. Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) Assessment for Intervention Selection
Alignment with core curriculum 3-5 behavioral expectations Evidence-based Interventions Interventions for which data from scientific, rigorous research designs have demonstrated (or empirically validated) the efficacy of the intervention. Big Idea: the intervention has shown to improve the results for students who receive the intervention Research-based Curricula May incorporate design features that have been research generally; however, the curriculum or program as a whole has not been studied using a rigorous research design. Assessment for Intervention Selection --National Center on Response to Intervention
Big “ I ” Interventions vs. Little “i” Interventions
Intervention is continuously available Rapid access to intervention (3 days) Very low effort by teachers Consistent with school-wide expectations Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school Home/school linkage Flexible intervention matched to function of behavior Major Features of Secondary Interventions
Progress Monitoring Allows practitioners to answer critical questions: Are students making progress at an acceptable rate? Quantify student rates of improvement or responsiveness to instruction Are students meeting short-term goals necessary for achieving long-term goals? Identify students who are not making adequate progress Does the instruction need to be adjusted or changed? Evaluate instructional effectiveness.
Continuous Progress Monitoring to confirm risk status and monitor progress of at-risk students Collection of data on a monthly, weekly, daily rate Use of data for decision making Progress Monitoring
Data-Based Decision Making Utility and value: Instruction Who needs assistance? What type of instruction or assistance is needed? Is the duration and intensity sufficient? Movement within the Multiple Levels When are students moved to something more/less intensive? Who is responding and/or not responding? Disability Identification When do you refer for special education evaluation? How does this student compare to his/her peers? What appropriate instruction received by the student?
Without considering fidelity of implementation, it is unknown: whether students fail to respond to secondary supports. if staff have failed to provide adequate supports. Meeting time devoted to monitoring and improving fidelity of implementation may seem like time better spent discussing student progress, but is a valuable and critical investment of resources for all students. Fidelity of Implementation
Evidence-based intervention Evidence that schools can successfully implement Evidence of decreased problem behavior Evidence of effectiveness for 60-75% of students in need of secondary supports (Crone, Horner, & Hawken, 2004) Check In, Check Out (CICO)
More effective with students with attention-maintained problem behavior (March & Horner, 2002; McIntosh, et. al., 2009; Campbell & Anderson, 2008) Effective across behavioral functions (Hawken, O’Neill, & MacLeod, 2011) Students who do not respond to CICO may benefit from function-based, individualized interventions (Fairbanks, et. al., 2007; March & Horner, 2002; Macleod, Hawken, & O’Neill, 2010) CICO Research
Behavioral Priming/Behavioral Momentum Start each school day positively Start each class positively Student recruitment of contingent adult attention Predictability Self-management Data-based Decision Making High level of efficiency Check In, Check Out (CICO)
Increased Structure Prompts for correct behavior throughout the day Systematic linking of a student with at least one positive adult Increased opportunity for feedback Performance feedback related to student behavior High rates of adult attention Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or reinforced CICO Intervention Overview
Increased Predictability Each day begins with a positive contact Each class/period begins with a positive contact Student is continuously set up for success Systematic communication between school and home Increased time for student skill development Increased ability to self-monitor progress/performance Organized to fade into a self-management system CICO Intervention Overview
Elevated recognition for appropriate behavior Adult attention delivered at the start and end of the day Adult attention delivered during each targeted period Program can be applied in all supervised locations Classroom and non-classroom settings CICO Intervention Overview
CICO Cycle Student Identified for CICO CICO Implemented CICO Coordinator summarizes data for decision making Frequently scheduled meetings to analyze student progress Revise Program Exit Program Continue Program Regular Teacher Feedback Family Feedback Morning Check In Afternoon Check Out
Morning Check In Start school day positively Check student “status” Check Daily Progress Report (DPR) that was sent home Provide new DPR for the current day Regular Teacher Feedback Start each class positively Complete DPR Provide feedback to student at the end of period in relation to CICO goals Cycle of Feedback
Afternoon Check Out End school day positively and encourage for tomorrow Review the completed Daily Progress Report Record points in CICO-SWIS Send communication home to family regarding the CICO day Parent Feedback Student shares DPR with parent/family Parent provides positive feedback and encouragement Parent communicates with school Example: signed DPR Cycle of Feedback
Daily Progress Report
Team Meeting Review student progress Adjust support plan if no improvement within one week Build self-management steps when appropriate Exit when appropriate Report to school-wide team, administration, and whole faculty Team Meeting and Progress Monitoring
CICO Progress Monitoring How is each student doing in relation to the school-wide goal?
CICO Progress Monitoring What is one student’s pattern over time?
CICO Progress Monitoring What does one student’s average day look like?
CICO Progress Monitoring What is one student’s pattern over time in a single period?
For More Information
Effective school-wide and classroom-wide behavior support is linked to increased academic engagement. Improved academic engagement with effective instruction is linked to improved academic outcomes. The systems needed to implement effective academic supports and effective behavior supports are very similar: Clear Goals and Expected Outcomes Appropriate Instruction Feedback and Encouragement Error Correction Monitoring Linking Academic and Behavior Supports