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Water and Land as Habitats for Plants Aquatic PlantsTerrestrial Plants WaterClose to each cell Under land surface, evaporates quickly above surface MineralsClose.

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Presentation on theme: "Water and Land as Habitats for Plants Aquatic PlantsTerrestrial Plants WaterClose to each cell Under land surface, evaporates quickly above surface MineralsClose."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water and Land as Habitats for Plants Aquatic PlantsTerrestrial Plants WaterClose to each cell Under land surface, evaporates quickly above surface MineralsClose to each cell On or under surface GasesDissolved at low concentrations Plentiful in air

2 SupportProvides buoyancy and support Much less support for parts in air Light Cuts out some wavelengths and lowers intensity More light available Temperature Little fluctuation, slow change Changes more rapid, wider extremes Aquatic PlantsTerrestrial Plants

3 ReproductionGametes swim to other plants Water seldom available for swimming gametes Offspring Dispersal Water carries offspring to new locations Offspring dispersed through various methods (seldom water) Terrestrial PlantsAquatic Plants

4 Terrestrial Plant Anatomy

5 Plants moved from water to land but there were challenges along the way… Challenge Adaptation Getting water and minerals into the plant Roots

6 Major Functions of Absorption Transport of materials Storage of materials Anchorage

7 Fibrous root Taproot

8 All of these things add to the Surface Area which allows for more water to be absorbed Meristem area where new cells are added to a plant, increasing its length

9 Fibrous root Taproot

10 Challenge Adaptation Getting water and minerals into the plant Roots Terrestrial Plant Adaptations Moving water and food within the plant Vascular tissue

11 Phloem “Ph”lows “Ph”ood DOWN!!!! Xylem carries H 2 O & minerals UP

12 Bundles of xylem and phloem are found in roots, stems and leaves of vascular plants Vascular tissue

13 Adhesion Water “sticks” to other molecules

14 Cohesion – Water “sticks” to water Adhesion – Water “sticks” to other molecules (Starts the process) Transpiration – Water loss from a plant leaf

15 Bundles of xylem and phloem are found in roots, stems and leaves of vascular plants Vascular tissue

16 2 main types of vascular plants Gymnosperms – cone bearing plants Pine trees and fir trees Angiosperms – flowering plants Any tree, bush or plant that produces a flower

17 Within the Angiosperms, there are two plant groups, the Monocots and the Dicots. The distinction between these two groups is not always clear, but some general trends are outlined on then next slide

18 Monocots Dicots Floral Arrangement3's 4's and 5's Leaf VenationParallel Net Vascular bundlesScattered Ring RootsFibrous Taproot GrowthPrimary only Primary and Secondary Examples:Grass, Palm, Oaks, Roses, Orchid Sunflowers

19 Challenge Adaptation Getting water and minerals into the plant Roots Terrestrial Plant Adaptations Moving water and food within the plant Vascular tissue Plant body supportVascular tissue

20 Major Functions of Support Transport Storage

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25 MERISTEMS – Regions of cell tips of plant PRIMARY GROWTH - growth in length of plant SECONDARY GROWTH - Growth in thickness of plant

26 Challenge Adaptation Terrestrial Plant Adaptations Getting sunlight for photosynthesisLeaves

27 Most are thin & flat (surface area to volume ratio) Take in sunlight & CO 2

28 Challenge Adaptation Terrestrial Plant Adaptations Getting sunlight for photosynthesisLeaves Getting gas for photosynthesis and cellular respiration Stomata

29 STOMATA pore that allows CO 2 to enter and H 2 O & O 2 exit. GUARD CELLS open & close the stomata Some plants in dry climates will regulate when the stomata is open to minimize water loss Transpiration – Loss of H 2 O by plant > 90% of H 2 O is lost Through stomata

30 Challenge Adaptation Terrestrial Plant Adaptations Getting sunlight for photosynthesisLeaves Getting gas for photosynthesis and cellular respiration Stomata Preventing evaporation from plant surface Cuticle

31 Cuticle – waxy layer Prevent H 2 O loss

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35 Challenge Adaptation Terrestrial Plant Adaptations Coordinating growth patterns and environmental response Hormones Getting sperm to egg without water Pollen

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37 SexualAsexual Sperm from one plant fertilized the eggs of another plant of the same species Sperm (pollen) carried by wind, insects, animals, etc. New combination of DNA in offspring A plant reproduces by itself. There is no combining of DNA Runners (roots), leaves, self-pollination Offspring = genetically identical to parent plant Clones!

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41 Female Parts Carpel Stigma Style Ovary Male Parts Anther Stamen Filament

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45 Challenge Adaptation Terrestrial Plant Adaptations Coordinating growth patterns and environmental response Hormones Getting sperm to egg without water Pollen Dispersing new individuals to suitable locations Airborne spores then seeds

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