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FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/2003 1 Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Introduction: * Linko (1947) published a case of farmers’

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Presentation on theme: "FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/2003 1 Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Introduction: * Linko (1947) published a case of farmers’"— Presentation transcript:

1 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Introduction: * Linko (1947) published a case of farmers’ lung * first study at the end of 1970', “farmers exposure to microbes” in Kuopio Regional Institute of Occupational Health * since the year 1980 several studies have been published concerning chemical, physical and biological agents in different types of environments in agriculture

2 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Chronic bronchitis Farmer´s lung ODTS (grain fever) Asthma Rhinitis Metal fever Poisoning Skin symptoms Musculoskeletal symptoms Accidents Hearing loss Comfort Inhalable dust Molds Endotoxins Allergens Bacteria Welding fumes (Zn) Pesticides Cleaning/desincfection Working postures Lighting Noise Vibration Diseases Exposures Cocktail = Possible connections of exposures and diseases: Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers

3 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ N

4 4 Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Occupational diseases among farmers in 2002 (Farmers Insurance Institution) Chemical cow dander, epithelium 79 flour dust30 wet and dirty work18 rubber11 cement 3 acidity 3 natural resin 2 cleaning liquid 2 others 6 Physical noise 27 Biological molds 32 viruses 30 Storage mites 18 bacteria 11 Working postures epicondylitis 154 others 9 TOTAL 484

5 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Why to measure occupational factors ? - occupational diseases are common among farmers in Finland so it is important to decrease he number - Number of accidents are numerous and also fatal injuries occur - Through research we can find solutions to control methods

6 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Microbes, molds, bacteria Exposure at cow farms : * at 70’s and 80’s quite high * during 90’s decreasing and still going downward * Analysis: - mold specific cultivating petri dishes - total number with filter sampling and staining * result: knowledge (?) of hazardous species, means for mold control (hay dryers, chemical treatment of hay, grain, etc) Exposure at swine farms : * usually higher than cow farms

7 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Total dust Inorganic during outdoor work * high concentrations during tilling, sowing, harvesting Organic dust indoors * cow farms; ( next slide) * swines; usually higher than in cow farms * poultry; at the same level as in swine houses OEL: organic dust 5 mg/m 3, inorganic 10 mg/m 3

8 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Dust exposure at cow farms Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers

9 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Gases * mainly ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide have been measured * most often cow farms have been measured results:cow; (next slide) swines: high NH 3 concentrations, moderate CO 2 poultry: floor units high NH 3 concentrations, H 2 S; very rare gas in cow houses, seldom in deep bed swineries, but has cause fatalities during liquid manure handling Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers OEL: Ammonia 20 ppm, Carbon Dioxide 5000 ppm, Hydrogen Sulfide 10 ppm

10 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ The mean concentrations of CO 2 and NH 3 in cow houses Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers

11 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Pesticides: - Average farmer´s exposure to pesticides is quite low in Finland * small amounts of pesticides are used, 1-2 days / summer * effective low-portion liquids * farmers are afraid of poisons - More exposure to potato, sugar beet, carrot farmers, tens of days in summer, typical types are herbicides, insecticides - Biomonitoring blood or urine: farmers are involved quite seldom - Testing of sprayers and the test of farmer every 5 years, every 10 years for extremely dangerous pesticides

12 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Noise: OEL: 85 dB(A), animal buildings 65 dB 1980’ 1990’2003 med rangemed rangemed range cow swine poultry

13 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ WorkMedian (dB(A)) range (dB(A)) Milking 75 (72-77) Milking and pressure cleaning 80 (80-81) Feeding, drying 77 (73-79) Use of tractor or loader 85 (78-90) Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Noise levels in cow houses:

14 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Vibration : - Tractor and harvester work was analysed at the beginning of harrowing the worst, harvesting not - Tractors were measured in harrowing work in Farmers exposure to vibration was high and the daily 8-hour "fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary" (ISO 2631/1) was exceeded in all tractors

15 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Ventilation of buildings - Ventilation has an effect to gases, temperature, moisture - Indoor work during wintertime problematic to the animals, structures and farmers - ventilation is difficult to design, construction is easier but the farmers try to buy and build cheap solutions and then problems rise

16 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Fatal Injuries

17 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Fatal Injuries

18 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers Accidents

19 FIOH/Kyösti Louhelainen, Kuopio - twinning Tarto 6/ Occupational Exposure of Finnish farmers What all this means ? * The occupational exposure of Finnish farmers - is quite well documentated - had decreased a lot in some cases, in same not so much - could be much better, if control methods had been implemented more properly


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