Presentation on theme: "CONSUMED BY FUMES HAZARDS OF AGRICULTURAL GASES. Learning Objectives Understanding the types of respiratory hazards Identifying hazardous atmospheres."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Objectives Understanding the types of respiratory hazards Identifying hazardous atmospheres –Manure Pits –Silos Measuring Gases
Respiratory Hazards Three categories: –Particulate contaminants Dusts, Mist, Fumes –Gases and vapors Chemicals –Oxygen-deficient atmosphere
Hazardous Atmospheres Can Be: –Flammable –Asphyxiating –Toxic Hazardous Environments on the Farm –Silos –Manure pits
Manure Pits Enclosed structures –Near or below an animal house facility or open structures 75 fatalities from 1975 – 2004 Most of these fatalities resulted from asphyxiation Rescuers account for over 60% of confined space fatalities
Manure Pit Gases Hydrogen Sulfide –Greatest danger with enclosed pits –Rotten egg smell but higher concentrations deaden the sense of smell –Collects in lower levels of structures –Released when manure is agitated –Levels of 500 ppm or greater can cause death
Manure Pit Gases Ammonia –Non-toxic and heavier than air –Distinctive Sharp Odor –Can irritate the eyes and throat –Higher concentrations can cause wheezing and shortness of breath –Less of an immediate concern because the strong persistent odor discourages long contact
Manure Pit Gases Methane –Non-toxic and lighter than air Odorless, colorless Forms explosive concentrations in air When ventilation is inadequate can displace oxygen and cause asphyxiation
Manure Pit Gases Carbon Dioxide –Non-toxic and heavier than air Odorless, colorless Normal product of decomposition and animal respiration When ventilation is inadequate can displace oxygen and cause asphyxiation
Decreasing the Risk of Exposure Ventilation –Force fresh air into the space –Use fans Never enter the space unless necessary –Always test gas levels –Wear harness and safety gear –Make sure another individual is with you outside the pit
Conventional Silos Structure –Concrete Staves held together by steal hoops –Also reinforced with concrete, steel and other materials Nitrogen is most abundant gas –Bleach like odor –Low lying yellow, red, or dark brown fumes –Settles at the top of the silage, flows down the chute, collects in adjoining structures –Forms within hours after forges are ensiled
Oxygen Limiting Silos Structure –Constructed of a dark blue or green enamel coated steel –Also made of poured reinforced concrete –Designed so entry is unnecessary Fermentation produces both Nitrogen Dioxide and Carbon Dioxide –CO2 is odorless and colorless –When levels are high, individuals can be overcome quickly
Decreasing the Risk of Exposure Proper Ventilation –Keep Doors Closed –Use Fans Timing –Avoid Silos during critical periods 12 and 72 hours after filling If possible two to three weeks after filling –If you do have to enter wear a self contained breathing apparatus, and maintain visual contact with a second person outside Personnel Personal Protective Equipment Signage
Gas and Vapor Sampling Detector Tubes Diffusion Tubes Electronic reading instruments
Benefits of Detector Tubes Shows results in a minute “Grab Sample” –High concentrations that need immediate readings –H2S or NH3 in manure pits –CO poisoning Photo: GMS Instruments Photo: Terra Universal
Diffusion Tubes Direct reading measure –Takes hours to get reading Do not use in IDLH concentrations (Immediately Dangerous to Life & Health) Photo: Grainger
Protection and Safety: Electronic Reading Instruments Instantaneous readings Accurate to the concentration Can be expensive
Summary Not all environments on the farm are safe. Gases can overcome those exposed very quickly. Ensure that you and your fellow workers are trained on proper safety techniques. Know how to test and monitor gases so you are safe at all times.
References Dangers of silo gases. (2012) Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from http://www.extension.org/pages/64390/dangers-of-silo- gases.http://www.extension.org/pages/64390/dangers-of-silo- gases Manure Storage Safety –http://www.extension.org/pages/19943/manure-storage- safety#.UoY8lI154iU Respiratory Protection –http://www.extension.org/pages/63440/respiratory-protection-on-the-farm- and-ranch#.Up41UY155is
For More Information OSU Ag Safety & Health The Ohio State University Ag Engineering Building 590 Woody Hayes Drive Columbus, Ohio 43210-1057 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 614-292-6008 Website: agsafety.osu.edu
This project was supported by the USDA’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Rural Health and Safety Education Grant Program- grant number 2012- 46100-20144.
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