Presentation on theme: "CHEMICALS IN THE WORKPLACE Esra YILMAZ Environmental Engineer."— Presentation transcript:
CHEMICALS IN THE WORKPLACE Esra YILMAZ Environmental Engineer
2 Content General information about chemicals Routes of entry into the body/health effects Common chemical groups that cause health risks Factors that determine the type of toxic effect a chemical can have on you.
3 CHAPTER I: General information about chemicals
4 Chemicals Chemicals are a part of everyone's life. There are five to seven million different chemicals known in the world. At least four hundred million tonnes of chemicals are produced worldwide each year (including agricultural chemicals, food additives, fuels for power production, chemical consumer products, etc.)
5 Types of chemicals found in the workplace The main physical forms of chemicals are solids, dusts, liquids, vapours and gases.
6 Solids Solids are the least likely of the chemical forms to cause chemical poisoning.
8 Liquids Many hazardous substances, such as acids and solvents, are liquids when they are at normal temperature.
9 Vapours A vapour is the gas phase of a material which is normally liquid under standard conditions.
10 Gases Some chemical substances are in the form of a gas when they are at a normal temperature. However, some chemicals in liquid or solid form become gases when they are heated.
11 Classification According to Biological Effects Asphyxiant gases Simple asphyxiants (CO2,methane,ethane, buthane,nitrogen gases) Chemical asphyxiants (CO, hydrogen sulphide ) Irritant gases Chlorine, phosgene, nitrogen compounds Systematic gases alcohols and carbon tetrachloride Narcotic gases Toluene, benzene Gases
12 CHAPTER II: Routes of entry into the body/health effects
13 ROUTES of ENTRY INTO THE BODY Ingestion Inhalation Contact with skin or eyes (absorption)
14 ROUTES of ENTRY INTO THE BODY-1 Inhalation More hazardous agents get into your body by inhalation (by being breathed in) than by any other route.
15 How do you know whether you are being exposed to respiratory hazards at work? smell sneezing coughing a runny nose Warning signals are:
16 ROUTES of ENTRY INTO THE BODY-2 Ingestion Hazardous agents can also get into the body by ingestion.
17 ROUTES of ENTRY INTO THE BODY-3 Absorption Some chemicals (such as strong acids and alkalis) can damage your skin. This condition is called dermatitis.
18 Contact dermatitis Another common occupational skin disease is contact dermatitis — a type of allergic reaction.
19 Some of the chemicals that cause contact dermatitis are: formaldehyde; nickel compounds; epoxy resins and catalysts used in the plastics industry; germicidal agents used in soap and other cleaners chromates.
20 CHAPTER III: Common chemical groups that cause health risks
21 Gases Sulphur oxides, Nitrogen oxides, Chlorine, Ammonia Some toxic gases are corrosive and irritating to the respiratory system. Hydrogen cyanide Some gases can pass through the skin Carbon monoxideSome gases may enter the blood circulation.
22 Solvents Most industrial solvents are liquid organic chemicals Many of them evaporate rapidly at ambient temperatures They are often flammable and may ignite by heat from smoking, welding or static electricity. Example of very dangerous solvents:Benzene, carbon tetra cloride, carbon disulphide.
23 Metals Metals can enter the body in the form of dust and fumes (in grinding or welding) or even through the skin.
24 Acids and bases Strong acids and bases are mostly used as water solutions. They are corrosive to human tissue.
25 Pesticides Pesticides are used in industry, for example, to impregnate wood, and in agriculture to control insects, weed, fungi, and rats.
26 Different organs and tissues that can be affected by certain toxic industrial chemicals.
27 CHAPTER IV: Factors that determine the type of toxic effect a chemical can have on you.
28 factors that determine the type of toxic effect a chemical can have on you the route of entry by which the chemical gets into the body the worker's individual response to the chemical, which can vary a great deal from person to person the frequency, concentration, and length of exposure the physical form of the chemical (dust, vapour, liquid, etc.) the chemical composition of the hazardous substance the particular tissues and organs in which the chemical collects or localizes factors that determine the type of toxic effect a chemical can have on you
29 ChemicalPhysical form Method of entry Organ(s) that can be affected Class of effect Examples of Cadmium metal and some of its compounds Dusts, vapours Dusts Inhalation Ingestion Lungs, throat, kidneys Poisonous, causing damage to lungs, kidneys on chronic exposure. Metal industries, welding processes, heavy chemicals BenzeneVapourInhalation Absorption through skin Brain, bone, marrow, skin Poisonous. Possibly carcinogenic Many industrial activities, especially chemical industry, adhesives, paints,etc. Nickel and some of its compounds Dusts Vapour Absorption through skin Inhalation Skin Lungs, nasal passages Dermatitic Irritant in lungs (nickel carbonyl). Carcinogenic on chronic exposure Metallurgical industries, heavy chemicals, laboratory workers
30 Summary Chemicals are a part of everyone's life. The main physical forms of chemicals are solids, dusts, liquids, vapours and gases. Routes of entry into the body:inhalation, ingestion, absorption There are a lot of factors that determine the type of toxic effect a chemical can have on you Be aware different chemical materials in your workplace and you can exposure to them.