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1 Yahya Gino Kurama, Associate Professor Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences University of Notre Dame Introduction to Engineering Program University.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Yahya Gino Kurama, Associate Professor Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences University of Notre Dame Introduction to Engineering Program University."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Yahya Gino Kurama, Associate Professor Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences University of Notre Dame Introduction to Engineering Program University of Notre Dame July 16, 2004

2 2 Structure: “any assemblage of materials that is intended to sustain loads” Nearly every plant and animal, and nearly all works of man have to sustain forces without breaking, so practically everything is a structure of one type or another.

3 3 Buildings Dams Tunnels Bridges Domes Civil Structures are BIG!

4 4 Great Pyramids Sphinx Man fears Time, yet Time fears the Pyramids Arab proverb

5 5 Gravity loads (self weight, people, furniture, etc.) Earth and water pressure Dynamic wind load effects Dynamic occupant effects Earthquakes Structures respond to these dynamic loads, moving, swaying, and ….

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11 11 BUILDING STRUCTURES Masonry Reinforced concrete frame Steel frame Reinforced concrete wall

12 12 Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Pantheon, Rome St. Paul’s Cathedral, London San Pietro Citta’ del Vaticano, Rome

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17 17 Marina City Chicago Sears Tower Chicago John Hancock Building Chicago Empire State Building New York City Transamerica Building San Francisco

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21 21 AUGUST 17, 1999 IZMIT EARTHQUAKE (M 7.4)

22 22 SEISMIC ACTIVITY IN THE REGION

23 23 San Andreas Fault California

24 24 RIGHT-LATERAL STRIKE-SLIP FAULT (> 1400 km) E E W W The North Anatolian Fault

25 25 HORIZONTAL SLIP ALONG THE NAF 2 meters (6.6 feet) 2 meters (6.6 feet)

26 26 HORIZONTAL SLIP ALONG THE NAF

27 27 HORIZONTAL SLIP ALONG THE NAF

28 28 VERTICAL SLIP ALONG THE NAF 1.7 meters (5.6 feet) 1.7 meters (5.6 feet)

29 29 VERTICAL SLIP ALONG THE NAF

30 30 REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS

31 31 REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS

32 32 WHICH FLOOR WOULD YOU RATHER LIVE IN?

33 33 SOFT/WEAK STORY COLLAPSE

34 34 REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS

35 35 REINFORCED CONCRETE BUILDINGS

36 36 HYGOKEN-NAMBU, JAPAN, 1994

37 37 CHI-CHI, TAIWAN, 1999

38 38 NORTHRIDGE, U.S., 1994

39 39 NORTHRIDGE, U.S., 1994

40 40 MAIN PROBLEMS Poor detailing, poor materials, poor workmanship Stiff and heavy structures Limited capacity to deform laterally

41 41 SEISMIC ISOLATION

42 42 SEISMIC ISOLATION USING LEAD-RUBBER BEARINGS

43 43 LEAD-RUBBER BEARING

44 44 USC UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL - WITH ISOLATION

45 45 USC UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL - WITH ISOLATION

46 46 OLIVE VIEW HOSPITAL - WITHOUT ISOLATION

47 47 OLIVE VIEW HOSPITAL - WITHOUT ISOLATION

48 48 OLIVE VIEW HOSPITAL - WITHOUT ISOLATION

49 49 Civil Engineering has many interesting and challenging problems. Protecting structures against damaging winds and earthquakes is one of the important jobs of a civil engineer.

50 50 National Science Foundation Scientists and Engineers in the Schools Program

51 51 U.S. Geological Survey

52 52 On PBS

53 53


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