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Earthquake Basics Section 2
+What causes earthquakes? +How do earthquake forces enter buildings? +How does the building respond? +What building elements resist forces?
EpicenterEpicenter FaultFault Point of fracture or slippage, termed Focus or Hypocenter
California Index Map
Distance to Fault Source Surface Geology Water Sand Rock Fault
Inertia Forces ACCELERATIONACCELERATION DECELERATIONDECELERATION
HD1HD1HD2HD2 ElevationElevation HD3HD3HD4HD4 Height / Weight Relationship 0101 1½1½ 0120123
Building at Rest Ground Accelerates to Left Ground Accelerates to Right Ground & Building at Rest Period of Vibration
Chimney Vibration Failure
Porch Vibration Failure
Two Story Vibration Failure
Shear Wall Cripple Wall Foundation Floor Diaphragm Floor Diaphragm Roof Diaphragm House Elements Resist Horizontal Forces f1f1 f2f2 f3f3 f sum = f 1 + f 2 + f 3
Cripple Walls Crawl Space Cripple Wall First Floor
Damage Resulting from Base Shear
Buildings Resist Horizontal Earthquake Forces +Horizontal parts: Roof & floor structures diaphragms +Vertical parts: Span horizontal elements shear walls
Complete Load Path
No Shear Wall at Garage
Steel Moment Frame
House Elements Resist Gravity Roof Joists Walls Floor Beams Foundations
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Guided Notes about Earthquakes and Society Section 19.4.
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7. APPROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES.
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