Presentation on theme: "Main Functions of Buildings 4 Provide a safe and comfortable environment for work and rest. (Protect us from wind, rain and the wild animals) 4 Two types."— Presentation transcript:
Main Functions of Buildings 4 Provide a safe and comfortable environment for work and rest. (Protect us from wind, rain and the wild animals) 4 Two types of loads act on a building structure ： 1. Vertical force (Load from the weight of human, furniture or building itself) 2. Lateral force (Load from wind or earthquake etc.) 4 Basic requirements in building architecture ： 1. For safety, a building will not collapse under great stress 2. For comfort, a building will not move excessively under great pressure
Stress 4 Load acting on a structure will be shared by each component. eg. For a load of 200,000 kg shared by 4 pillars, each pillar has to bear 50,000 kg. 4 Stress = Force/Area In the above case, if the area increases and the load remains unchanged, the stress will decrease. 4 The maximum stress that a material can bear is called the material strength.
Beam 4 A component used to bear the bending forces in a structure. 4 When stress is exerted, it has to bear a pressure from above and a pulling force from below. (see the figure above) 4 Under constant load (W), if the beam’s span (L) increases, it’s vertical displacement will increase and the stress it bears will increase. 4 The beam’s vertical displacement and stress will decrease if the thickness of the beam (H) increases. W L H
Building Material 1. Timber ： 4 Light; cheap; easy to link up; has a high availability. 4 Used for buildings of one or two levels (common in Europe and America). 4 Low strength; easy to deform under stress or pressure; cannot be used in tall buildings or long bridges. 2. Steel bar ： 4 High strength; high resistance to deformation; suitable for constructing tall buildings and long bridges. 4 Expensive 4 Difficult to link up (components are prepared in factory, rather in the building site.)
Steel-reinforced Concrete 4 Concrete can bear a very high pressure but is weak in bearing tension. 4 Steel lines are used to bear tension. 4 Cheaper than steel bars. 4 Can apply directly in working place; can be made into components for combination.
Building Structure 4 Vertical Force –Passes from the floor to the beam, then to the pillar, and finally to the base. 4 Lateral Force –The framework can bear the lateral force. –A shear wall is added to the structure of building with over twenty levels and thus the building can bear a greater lateral force.
4 A higher building suffers a greater lateral force, and therefore a tall building has to face a much greater lateral force than the vertical force. 4 Buildings having 40 to 50 levels (or more) require special designs : 1. Reduce the distances between the pillars and thicken the beams. =>To increase the structural efficiency.
eg. Hopewell Centre, Wanchai
However, when the structural efficiency maximizes, the frame will become a box with many small holes on it. eg. Jardine House
2. Super Frame - Most of the external forces are taken by the super-sized structural components. eg. Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank Building
eg. Bank of China Tower
Acknowledgment ： 4 Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) 4 Dr. Christopher K.Y. LEUNG Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology