6Events of 1915-1918 World War I Ottoman empire McMahon-Hussein CorrespondenceMcMahon - Arab revolt against Ottoman empireHussein - Creation of Arab stateBalfour Declaration – 2nd Nov 1917"His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object”Sykes-Picot AgreementZionism - ZO
7What this led to Palestinian Riots Hebron Massacre 19201921Hebron Massacre23rd August, 192967 Jews killedRumors of Jewish occupation of Holy LandsSimilar attacks everywhereArab RevoltWhite paper of 1939Renounced Britain’s intent of creating a Jewish home in PalestineConfiscated all weapons from Arab population
9The story of the Jews Displaced people History of Attacks 1648 Ukraine1821 Ukraine - The first riot actually called a ‘pogrom’RussiaFew deaths, but much fear and property destructionZionist MovementRussiaMany deathsMuch Jewish emigration to Europe and the USA1918 Poland Argentina Romania1933 GermanyThe Holocaust1945 Arab states such as Libya
10Holocaust The Germans did not succeed in eliminating the Jews Nazi Germany and HitlerPerpetrated the worst ‘Pogrom’ in living memorySystematic elimination of JewsFactory-like processConcentration CampsJews - identified, labelled, herded, moved, stored, abused and finally killedResultOver 6 million Jews diedExodus to safe countriesUSA preferred destinationThe Germans did not succeed in eliminating the JewsRESULT :: Need for a SAFE homeland - Emigration
12UN Action 2 State theory Rejected by Palestinian Arabs Palestine & IsraelIsrael – 55%Palestine – 45%Rejected by Palestinian ArabsJewish settlers welcomed it – Ben GurionMay 15, 1948 – End of British RuleMay 14, 1948Palestinians move inJews retaliateIsrael declares independenceArab League declares warEgypt, Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon plan invasionsIDF defeats the Arab forces
13Result of the War Arab exodus into neighboring countries GainsJordanEast JerusalemWest BankEgyptGaza strip – Coastal StripElsewhere the Arabic forces were all pushed back1949 the United Nations declared a cease-fireIsrael signed armistice agreements with all the Arab statesIsrael had expanded by another 25%!Arab exodus into neighboring countriesJewish refugees flood Israel, USABen Gurion – national hero
141948-1973 Suez Crisis - 1956 6 day war – 1967 Yom Kippur War – 1973 Israel draws water from River JordanRestoration of national pride – Egypt (Gamel Abdel Naseer)Israel recapturesEast JerusalemWest BankGaza StripCaptures new territorySinaiYom Kippur War – 1973
15PLO & Intifada PLO Intifada : Arabic word Formed – 1964 Aim : Palestine, with its original Mandate borders, is the indivisible homeland of the Arab Palestinian peopleYasser ArafatGuerilla TacticsFatah MovementIntifada : Arabic wordStands for shaking off or shivering because of fear or illnessIt also means abrupt and sudden waking up from sleep or unconcerned status.Politically the word came to symbolize the Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupationCivil Disobedience1st – 19872nd – 2000
16HamasFormed in 19871st IntifadaDestroy Israel – Establish Palestinian stateDenies Holocaust occurredSheikh Ahmad Yassin, Abdel Aziz Rantissi and Mohd. TahaActivitiesSuicide bombingsRocket attacks (Qassam)Schools, hospitals, libraries and Social activitiesWins parliamentary elections – 2006Hamas -76 seats; Fatah- 43 seatsConflict between Hamas and FatahHamas defeats Fatah
17Hamas – Contd. Hamas offers 10 year truce Withdraw from West Bank & East JerusalemRight to return for PalestiniansIsrael doesn’t respond17th June 2008 – Informal truce between Hamas & IsraelNov 4th – 6 Hamas gunmen killed by Israeli forcesHamas responds with rocket attacks on Israeli border townsIsrael launches operation ‘Cast Lead’Weed out Hamas militants and smash arms hideouts and safe houses1000+ civilians deadLimited Hamas casualtiesHuman shields and blending into population during conflict
18Peace Process Oslo Accord – 1993 Camp David – 2000 Key FeaturesAriel SharonMohd Al Durrah IncidentMitchell report – Basis of the Road Map for peaceSharm El-Sheikh Fact-Finding Committee Reportan immediate cessation of all violencerebuilding confidence by a full-scale effort by the Palestinian Authority to prevent Terrorism, the freezing of Israeli settlement activity, ... and other confidence-building measuresresumption of negotiations
19Today Possible Solutions There is still much dispute and fighting over land and bordersHamas and the PLO are still in conflict with IsraelIsrael has control over 78% of the former Palestine, rather than the 55% allocated under the UN partition planPossible SolutionsMany moderate Arabs want Israeli withdrawal to pre bordersHamas (who is in power currently) does not want a peace agreement, rather desires a single Palestinian state2 state-solution1 state solutionIsrael’s “land for peace” deals
22Zionist Movement Baron Edmond de Rothschild Chaim Weizmann ‘the struggle to put an end to the Wandering Jew, could not have as its result, the creation of the Wandering Arab’Theodore HerzlDer Judenstaat – The Jewish State – 1896the only solution to the "Jewish Question" in Europe, including growing antisemitism, was through the establishment of a Jewish StateZionist Congress"If I were to sum up the Congress in a word – which I shall take care not to publish – it would be this: At Basle I founded the Jewish State. If I said this out loud today I would be greeted by universal laughter. In five years perhaps, and certainly in fifty years, everyone will perceive it."Chaim WeizmannRosh Pinna – First SettlementThe Wiki entry for Wandering Jew says that - The Wandering Jew is a figure from medieval Christian folklore whose legend began to spread in Europe in the 13th century. The original legend concerns a Jew who taunted Jesus on the way to the Crucifixion and was then cursed to walk the earth until the Second Coming. The exact nature of the wanderer's indiscretion varies in different versions of the tale, as do aspects of his character; sometimes he is said to be a shoemaker or other tradesman, while sometimes he is the doorman at Pontius Pilate's estate.
24WeizmannChaim Azriel Weizmann, 27 November 1874 – 9 November 1952) was a Zionist leader, President of the Zionist Organization, and the first President of the State of Israel. He was elected on 1 February 1949, and served until his death in The first picture shows Weizmann with Einstein and the second one shows Weizmann with Prince Faisal.