Presentation on theme: "What is a genome? A genome is the full set of genetic information that an organism carries in its DNA. The study of any genome starts with the analysis."— Presentation transcript:
1 What is a genome?A genome is the full set of genetic information that an organism carries in its DNA.The study of any genome starts with the analysis of chromosomes.Chromosomes are bundles of DNA and protein found in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells.Fruit fly chromosomes
2 How are chromosomes analyzed? To study chromosomes, scientists photograph chromosomes in mitosis and arrange them in a picture known as a karyotype.A karyotype shows the complete diploid set of chromosomes grouped together in pairs, arranged in order of decreasing size.A typical human karyotype contains 46 chromosomes arranged in pairs.1. Define What is a karyotype?
4 Down’s Syndrome Called TRISOMY 21 genetic disorder that occurs in approximately 1 of 800 live birthsSYMPTOMSCognitive impairmentLearning disabilitiesDevelpmental delaysLow muscle tone (infancy)Characteristic facial featuresHeart defectsOther health issuesCAUSESNon-disjunction of the 21st chromosome
6 Klinefelter’s Syndrome Klinefelter’s syndrome occurs in about 1 out of 1,000 males.XXY (extra copy of an X chromosome)SYMPTOMSNot always noticiable symptomsLarge hipsSmall breastsFat around the abdomenSmall testiclesCAUSESNon-disjunction of the sex chromosomes in either sperm or egg
8 How is DNA fingerprinting used to study genomes? No two individuals, except identical twins, are genetically identical.DNA fingerprinting analyzes sections of DNA that may have little or no function but that vary widely from one individual to another..(contd.)
9 HOW IS DNA Fingerprinted? DNA is cut by restriction enzymesscientists use gel electrophoresis to separate and analyze the differently sized fragments.Scientists compare the BANDS made2. Describe How do scientists separate DNA?
11 Teachers…Click on the following link Focus on the bottom of the activity only! Crime Scene Analysis CASE 1 and CASE 2
12 What have we learned about the human genome? The Human Genome Project was an international effort to sequence all 3 billion base pairs of human DNA.Other important goals included sequencing the genomes of model organisms to compare to human DNA, developing technology to support the research, exploring gene functions, studying human variation, and training future scientists.Today, multiple copies of the human genome, along with those of hundreds of other organisms, are available to the public.3. Explain What are some of the goals of the Human Genome Project?
13 How do humans genetically modify organisms? Human beings have always tried to improve the plants and animals they use for food, work, and companionship.Selective breeding describes the process by which humans allow only those animals with certain characteristics to produce the next generation.
14 Two Methods of Selective Breeding 1.Hybridization2.InbreedingCrossing dissimilar individuals together to bring together the best of both organismsContinued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
15 What are transgenic organisms? It is possible to construct organisms that are transgenic, containing genes from other species.Genetic engineers can now produce transgenic plants, animals, and microorganisms. By examining the traits of a genetically modified organism, it is possible to learn about the function of the transferred gene.This ability has contributed greatly to our understanding of gene regulation and expression.
16 What is recombinant DNA? Recombinant DNA consists of DNA molecules that have been taken from two sources and then recombined.Recombinant-DNA technology makes it possible to construct DNA molecules with nearly any combination of genes.
17 Cloning Clone – member of a population of genetically identical cells First dog successfully clonedClone – member of a population of genetically identical cells