Day 11 Infancy & Childhood: Cognitive Development
Which of the following is the correct term for a mental rule Piaget said we use to interpret our environment? A.schema B.syllogism C.assimilation D.accommodation E.hypothesis AP Question of the Day
A schema is a mental rule we use to interpret our environment. Assimilation and accommodation are steps in the process of learning described by Piaget. We first try to assimilate new information into an existing schema, then accommodate the new information by changing the schema if we need to. A syllogism is a type of logical argument, and a hypothesis is an explanation for an environmental event. A.Schema
Jean Piaget is such an important person in the history of psychology that it’s likely there will be at least one question about him on the AP exam. AP Exam Tip of the Day
●⅔ multiple choice o 100 questions - 70 minutes ●⅓ Free Response Questions (FRQs) o 2 questions - 50 minutes (25 minutes each) AP Exam Format
1.Essays are to be written in blue or black ink. 2.Fight the tendency to begin writing before you begin thinking. 10-12 minutes should be spent planning for each essay! 3.Make sure you answer the question asked. If you say brilliant things about the wrong question, you score 0 points. 4.Introductions and conclusions count for nothing. This is science writing - concise and precise. “Top 10” FRQ Tips
5.Quality is more important than quantity. Good essays are generally about a page and a half long. 6.Essays are scored from a rubric. The reader is looking for specific points. 7.Use psychological terms and establish your understanding with definitions, explanations, or examples. 8.Start a new paragraph each time you address a new point. “Top 10” FRQ Tips
9.Establish context by using words from the question to tell the reader which part of the question you are answering. 10.State the obvious. Assume the reader is an idiot when it comes to psychology. “Top 10” FRQ Tips
● 10-12 minutes planning o Read the prompt all the way through. o Re-read the prompt and notate the important words in the prompt. o Make a chart or diagram of some sort to organize what the prompt is asking you to do. o Determine where the points are. o Structure the points in logical order. o Brainstorm brief notes - say SOMETHING about each point! ● 13-15 minutes writing How to spend your time:
Identify a classification system used to diagnose dysfunctional behavior. Describe a characteristic of one disorder and one personalityl disorder, and make clear in which area of the classification system each is found. Discuss 2 etiological factors for both the disorder and the personality disorder, and propose a treatment for the disorder. (10 points) Get a piece of paper and pair up - how would you plan for this FRQ - DO NOT answer it! Let’s practice.
Describe Lev Vygotsky’s ideas on the role of language, scaffolding, and the zone of proximal development in cognitive development. How did this theory differ from that of Piaget? (4 pts.) 25 minutes Let’s try this.
● Trade papers ● Read and give feedback to each other ● Score your partner’s FRQ using these guidelines... Partner Up
● 1 point - Vygotsky believed that as children grow, they increasingly use words to solve problems and think. Adults help with this process by giving them words to internalize behaviors. ● 1 point - Scaffolding is the way in which parents and others mentor children to promote cognitive growth, often through providing new words to describe a situation. ● 1 point - The zone of proximal development marks the border between what children can learn on their own or with help. ● 1 point - The major difference is that Piaget thought cognitive development resulted from children’s interactions with their physical environment, while Vygotsky believed they learned through social interactions. Scoring Guidelines