2 Objectives Review early development Identify stages of infant motor & language dvpt.Examine relationship between attachment and developmentAnalyze critical periods by looking at a case study
3 Warm Up Identify one thing you learned about prenatal/neonatal… Physical dvptSensory dvptSocial dvpt
4 Homework Review Which decade was the easiest? Which decade was the most difficult?What words are most commonly associated with particular decades? Why?
5 Infancy Motor Development Maturation: Increasing coordination of muscles for physical mvmtMaturation:Genetically programmed growth & dvptResearchers believe that that we are hard-wired to sit up, pull up, walk at particular ages…maturation – genetically programmed growth & dvpt…Motor dvpt influenced by maturation, mixed with active exploration of environment!
6 Activity: Place abilities in order from 1-8 Walks alone; says several wordsTurns head to follow moving objectClimbs stairs; says many wordsLaces shoesSits alone for 1 min; says “da-da”Puts on shoesRuns; uses simple word combinationsWalks while holding onto something
7 Activity Answers Turns head to follow moving object (2m) Sits alone for 1 min; says “da-da” (9m)Walks while holding onto something (1y)Walks alone; says several words (1y 3m)Climbs stairs; says many words (1y 6m)Runs; uses simple word combinations (2y)Puts on shoes (3y)Laces shoes (4y)
8 Motor Milestones Dvpt Norms (median age)… Lift head: 2 m Roll over: 3 mProp Up: 4 mSit Alone: 5.5 mStand w/Help: 7 mCrawl/Creep: 7-12 mStand Alone: 12 mWalk: mWalk backward: 14 mSteps: 17 mAvery’s Motor Milestones P.Pt
9 LanguageLearned, systematic code that enables us to communicate meaningful ideas.5 Forms: Reading, Writing, Gesturing, Signing, Speaking
10 Language Expressive Language: Receptive Language: Learning to speak and use languageReceptive Language:Learning to listen and understand language
11 Language TheoriesNativist TheoryLanguage Acquisition Device: Noam Chomsky said we are predisposed to acquire languageLearning TheoryB.F. Skinner: Kids learn language through observation and imitation of parentsMix: Eric Lenneberg said language is inborn, but must be learned during critical period (18m– Puberty) and is influenced by environment.
12 Language Milestones 0-1 m CRY 2 m COO 5-7 m BABBLE 12 m WORD 18 m OVEREXTENSION2 y TELEGRAPHIC3 y TENSE4-6 y SENTENCES, QUESTIONING7-9 y MULTIPLE MEANINGContinues to expand thru lifeLanguage acquisition continues throughout life- expand vocab, articulation
13 Critical PeriodsPeriod during which certain skills or behaviors must be acquired. If not, learned with great difficulty or not learned at all.Konrad LorenzBaby Geese & ImprintingHumans have critical periods in areas of socialization, motor skills, language!
14 Social Dvpt Attachment Harry Harlow Close bond b/t infants & caregiversHarry HarlowMonkey’s & Surrogate MomsContact comfort – physical closeness w/caregiverPreferred security to foodAbnormal behaviors if raised in isolation
15 Social Dvpt Attachment Styles Separation Anxiety – (6/8m – 14/18m) Mary Ainsworth’s Strange SituationSecure – infant seeks proximity, contact, & interaction w/caregiverInsecure – infant cannot be calmed or ignores the caregiver after the separationAnxious-AmbivalentAvoidantSeparation Anxiety – (6/8m – 14/18m)Emotional distress when separated from people they’re attached toSecure - Unhappy when mom left, but played w/stranger. Happy upon return.Anxious-Ambivalent – upset when mom left, but resist contact upon returnAvoidant – not upset when mom left, avoided mom upon return
16 ClosureExplain attachment and identify one psychologist & their contribution to this area of study.
18 Objectives:Identify the importance of attachment for social development.Evaluate examples of isolation in humans; including the infamous Genie case.
19 Warm Up.What is attachment and why is it important to (an infant’s) social development?
20 Isolation in Humans Feral Children Institutionalized Children Raised in wildVictorInstitutionalized ChildrenFoster vs InstitutionsCases of AbuseRaised in near total isolationGenie
21 Genie- Wild Child Reading 1970 LA social workers found neglected and abused 13 yr old suffering from physical, cognitive, social impairments. Having missed critical periods, could she learn to walk, talk?
23 Genie DiscussionWhat are some examples of the impact of her isolation on her development?Why is this called the forbidden experiment?Was Genie exploited in the name of science or were the researchers genuinely concerned for her welfare?