Presentation on theme: "INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD Physical & Social Development."— Presentation transcript:
INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD Physical & Social Development
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Brain Development At birth you have most of your brain cells Neural networks have to develop though Maturation must take place Biological growth processes enabling change The parts of the brain responsible for basic functions develop first (linked to evolutionary psychology)
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Motor Development With few exceptions – sequence of motor development is universal Roll over before sitting Creep on all fours before walking Genes matter! Identical Twins usually sit & walk on nearly the same day
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Maturation and Infant Memory Earliest memories not before age 3 The brain cortex has to mature to store long-term memories Think of your earliest memory…Write it down Your homework – talk with your parents and estimate your approximate age
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Stranger Anxiety About 8 months infants begin to display a fear of strangers How do you approach a child with stranger anxiety? Get permission Get on their level Ask for interaction in a casual way If child is still nervous, back off and play with one of their toys
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Origins of Attachment Attachment – emotional bond with another person Body Contact Harry & Margaret Harlow reared monkeys to study attachment (it had nothing to do with food) Harlow's Studies on Dependency in Monkeys.mp4 Harlow's Studies on Dependency in Monkeys.mp4 Should the same ethical constraints be imposed on animal research that exist for humans participants? Why or why not? They wouldn’t be able to do the same study today Did the Harlows’ studies imply that women should be the primary caregivers for infants? Why or why not?
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Origins of Attachment Familiarity Critical period – optimal period shortly after birth when certain evens must take place for proper development Konrad Lorenz studied Imprinting of birds They attach to their own species best, but a box on wheels works too It’s hard to reverse once created Fly Away Home Trailer Fly Away Home Trailer Children don’t “imprint” but do like what is familiar – it’s safe
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Attachment Differences Securely attached children Comfortable and explore in new environments w/mom Distressed when mom leaves & seek contact upon return Insecurely attached children Less exploration and more clingy w/mom Cry loudly when mom leaves & stay upset/indifferent when she comes back Mary Ainsworth’s research found: Sensitive responsive parents tend to have securely attached children (remember correlation is not causation)
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Depravation of Attachment Neglect and/or trauma can prevent attachment Leads to withdrawn children, frightened, may not develop speech Abusers have often been abused, but the abused are not always abusers Moving from foster house to foster house can be a cause Daycare? Quality daycare does not appear to effect attachment
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Self-Concept Begins at 6 months and evolves By 8-10 it is stable
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Child Rearing Practices (Parenting Styles) Authoritarian Parent imposes rules and expects obedience “Because I said so” Permissive Give in to child’s demands Make few demands, use little punishmen t Authoritative Set rules and enforce them Explain reasoning and encourage discussion Give and take (G”ive” – Authoritat”ive”)
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Get out a piece of loose leaf paper and complete the following…
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT How would each type of parent get balky children to: AuthoritarianPermissiveAuthoritative (Give & Take) 1.Clean up toys after play. 2.Eat dinner. 3. Go to bed.