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INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD Physical & Social Development.

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Presentation on theme: "INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD Physical & Social Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD Physical & Social Development

2 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Brain Development  At birth you have most of your brain cells  Neural networks have to develop though  Maturation must take place  Biological growth processes enabling change  The parts of the brain responsible for basic functions develop first (linked to evolutionary psychology)

3 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Motor Development  With few exceptions – sequence of motor development is universal  Roll over before sitting  Creep on all fours before walking  Genes matter! Identical Twins usually sit & walk on nearly the same day

4 PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Maturation and Infant Memory  Earliest memories not before age 3  The brain cortex has to mature to store long-term memories  Think of your earliest memory…Write it down  Your homework – talk with your parents and estimate your approximate age

5 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Stranger Anxiety  About 8 months infants begin to display a fear of strangers  How do you approach a child with stranger anxiety?  Get permission  Get on their level  Ask for interaction in a casual way  If child is still nervous, back off and play with one of their toys

6 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Origins of Attachment  Attachment – emotional bond with another person  Body Contact  Harry & Margaret Harlow reared monkeys to study attachment (it had nothing to do with food)  Harlow's Studies on Dependency in Monkeys.mp4 Harlow's Studies on Dependency in Monkeys.mp4  Should the same ethical constraints be imposed on animal research that exist for humans participants? Why or why not?  They wouldn’t be able to do the same study today  Did the Harlows’ studies imply that women should be the primary caregivers for infants? Why or why not?

7 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Origins of Attachment  Familiarity  Critical period – optimal period shortly after birth when certain evens must take place for proper development  Konrad Lorenz studied Imprinting of birds  They attach to their own species best, but a box on wheels works too  It’s hard to reverse once created  Fly Away Home Trailer Fly Away Home Trailer  Children don’t “imprint” but do like what is familiar – it’s safe

8 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Attachment Differences  Securely attached children  Comfortable and explore in new environments w/mom  Distressed when mom leaves & seek contact upon return  Insecurely attached children  Less exploration and more clingy w/mom  Cry loudly when mom leaves & stay upset/indifferent when she comes back  Mary Ainsworth’s research found:  Sensitive responsive parents tend to have securely attached children (remember correlation is not causation)

9 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Depravation of Attachment  Neglect and/or trauma can prevent attachment  Leads to withdrawn children, frightened, may not develop speech  Abusers have often been abused, but the abused are not always abusers  Moving from foster house to foster house can be a cause  Daycare?  Quality daycare does not appear to effect attachment

10 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Self-Concept  Begins at 6 months and evolves  By 8-10 it is stable

11 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Child Rearing Practices (Parenting Styles)  Authoritarian  Parent imposes rules and expects obedience  “Because I said so”  Permissive  Give in to child’s demands  Make few demands, use little punishmen t  Authoritative  Set rules and enforce them  Explain reasoning and encourage discussion  Give and take (G”ive” – Authoritat”ive”)

12 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT  Get out a piece of loose leaf paper and complete the following…

13 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT How would each type of parent get balky children to: AuthoritarianPermissiveAuthoritative (Give & Take) 1.Clean up toys after play. 2.Eat dinner. 3. Go to bed.


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