Overview Definition Traditional Bargaining v IBB IBB Principles IBB Processes
What is IBB? A problem solving process conducted in a principled manner that creates effective solutions through consensus decision making while improving the relationship.
IBB Is not nice bargaining Is not a magic pill Is not giving in to the other side Is taking a rational approach to bargaining Is trying to get your needs met
Traditional Bargaining Proposal Counter-proposal Haggle, threaten, cajole Agreement
Traditional Bargaining Starting point-adversarial positions Strategy –Gradual adjustments –Advocate your position –Detract from your opponent’s position –Opportunistic behavior Solution –Trade and “compromise” toward a midpoint –Based on power
IBB Starting point- full understanding of your own interests Strategy –Open discussion of interests –Encourage other side to openly discuss their interests –Brainstorm options with an open mind Solution –Evaluated according to objective standards –Agreement reached by consensus
Principles Problem solving is the focus-not winning or losing Focus on the problem Focus on concerns, needs, fears, worries and interests that underlie positions
Principles Generate a variety of options or solutions for mutual gain before deciding what to do Avoid results based on coercion Base resolution on mutually agreed upon objective standards, procedures or values
Ppreoobplleem Separate the people from the problem! Don’t blame the other party for the problem Discuss your perceptions Imagine the issue from the other party’s perspective Recognize and understand emotions Don’t assume the other party intends what you fear most Communicate clearly & effectively
1. Jointly Select an Issue Ensure the issue is clearly stated and understood by both parties If there are multiple issues, use a mutually acceptable method to decide the order in which the issues will be discussed
2. Discuss the interests behind the issue List the interests on a chart Discuss and clarify each interest Recognize the legitimacy of both parties interests to define the scope of the issue Convert positions to interests—all positions are based on interests Identify mutual interests Restate the issue if necessary
What is an interest? One Party’s –Concern –Fear –Need –Worry –Desire About an issue
Interest Statement Focuses on a problem, not a solution (no straw men) Articulates a range of needs (not my interest or your interest, but our interest) Creates a climate in which the problem area can be discussed without positions being set.
Position Statement Makes a demand Focuses on one solution Sets up a confrontation before the problem set has been defined
Converting Positions to Interests When a demand or position proposal appears on the interest list, ask: “What problem is this proposal trying to resolve? What concern is it trying to address?”
Interest Based Negotiation Communication Willingness to be open with information— your facts, motivations, goals, fears, concerns Your openness enables your counterpart to fully understand your interest
Interest Based Negotiation Communication Discussion of your interests with your counterpart enables your understanding of what you want or need It’s your job to find out what your counterpart wants or needs and it’s their job to find out what you want or need
Effective Communication The listener interprets the message the way the speaker intends
Effective Listening Guidelines 1. Stop talking!You cannot listen if you are talking. 2. Put the talker at ease: Help a person feel free to talk. 3. Show a talker that you want to listen. Look & act interested. Do no read your mail while someone talks. Listen to understand rather than to oppose. 4. Remove distractions. Dont doodle, tap or shuffle papers.Will it be quieter if you shut the door? 5. Empathize with talkers.Try to help yourself see the other persons point of view.
Effective Listening Guidelines 6. Be patient. Allow plenty of time. Do not interrupt a talker. Don”t start for the door or walk away. 7. Hold your temper. An angry person takes the wrong meaning from words. 8. Go easy on argument and criticism. These put people on the defensive, and they may clam up or become angry. Do not argue. Even if you win, you lose. 9. Ask questions.This encourages a talker and shows that you are listening. It helps to develop points further. 10. Stop talking!This is first and last, because all other guides depend on it.You cannot do an effective listening job while you are talking.
3. Establish Standards Determine the minimum necessary criteria for a solution, for example: –Feasible, Beneficial, Acceptable, Enhance Collaboration –“At the very least, the solution has to…”
4. Generate options Brainstorm to develop as many options as possible List options from the group on a chart Suggest options to meet the other parties’ interests as well as your own (options are not commitments) Clarify options Combine options
Brainstorming Rules Use a facilitator who –Records all options on flipchart –Does not edit –Encourages imagination, creativity and humor –Obtains the participation of all members
Brainstorming Rules Participants sit side-by-side, not across from each other Quantity over quality
Brainstorming Rules Criticism is for later –No option is out of bounds at this stage –Don’t say “That’s ridiculous” or “That’s contrary to regulations.” If it is, it’ll get sorted out in evaluation Participants can be inventive in their suggestions and in how they build on the ideas of others
5. Evaluate Options Discuss each option Use consensus techniques to evaluate options Negotiators may amend, combine, or develop new options as the evaluation proceeds Add new or revised options to the list to be evaluated in turn
6. Develop the Solution Combine options or elements of options that meet the standards and as many interests as possible Reach consensus on the solution Draft the solution, or appoint a committee to draft it Check for consensus on the written agreement
Group Consensus When all members agree upon a single alternative and can honestly say: –I believe you understand my point of view –I understand your point of view –Whether or not this is my preferred decision, I support it because it was reached openly and fairly and it is the best solution for us at this time.
Consensus Guidelines Listen—pay attention to others Encourage participation—but don’t embarrass anyone Share information Don’t change your mind to avoid conflict Don’t agree too quickly—explore options
Consensus Guidelines Ask questions Don’t trade support or bargain positions May vote thumbs up, neutral, thumbs down Don’t compete individually—treat differences as strengths Try to create a solution that can be supported
IBB Skills Separating people from problems Recording Active listening and clarifying
IBB Skills Brainstorming Process checking Consensus decision making
Summary Definition Traditional Bargaining v IBB IBB Principles IBB Processes