How often do you negotiate? In a research study of university students, the following question was posed to participants – often, seldom or never? Over 36% of the respondents answered “Seldom” or “Never” (Stark & Flaherty, 2002)
Definitions of conflict “A conflict exists whenever incompatible activities occur.” (Deutsch) “Conflict occurs when two or more people differ and at least one of them think it matters.” (Conbere & Heorhiadi)
Conflict and Negotiations Don’t bargain over positions Instead – change the game: 1. Separate the people from the problem 2. Focus on interests, not positions 3. Invent options for mutual gain 4. Insist on using objective criteria
1. Separate people from problems Be soft on the people, hard on the problem Yield to principle, not pressure Every negotiator wants to reach agreement that satisfies his substantive interests
2.Focus on interests-not positions Positions are what one demands, asks for, or indicates in any other way that one wants Interests are the needs or desires that lead to, or inform, one’s position To reach a WIN-WIN resolution of each party’s interests must be met
Types of Interests Procedural – concern for the nature of the problem solving process (e.g., need for fair process) Psychological – concern for self (e.g., respect, physical or emotional safety) Substantive – concern for the issue itself
Exercise: Positions & Interests Divide into teams of two What are examples of positions and interests in conflicts in which you have been involved?
3. Invent options for mutual gain Impossible to split the pie so that everyone is satisfied Expand the pie first – then divide it Identify shared interests Be innovative in the solution Create options Try brainstorming
4. Use objective criteria Negotiate on the basis of objective criteria, not what the other party demands Standards, market value, replacement costs, etc. Be open to reason, closed to threats Yield to principle, not pressure
Exercise: Conflict Steps Divide into teams Identify a recent conflict Walk through each of the four conflict resolution steps for this event
Develop BATNA Best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA) – what you will do if there is no negotiated agreement 1. Invent list of actions you might take 2. Improve and convert ideas to practical alternatives 3. Select the one alternative that seems best
Exercise: Conflict Styles Goal: Negotiate about working on Saturday Rules: Accommodator & Controller Controller is the boss, wants other to work on Saturday Accommodator promised souse to be home on Saturday, which is the spouse’s birthday. Plans have been made and cannot be changed. Pretend this is important
“Plays well with others” What if they don’t play nicely? Jujitsu – turn them away from positions and towards the merits How can you do this? ….. ….
Turning the tables 1. Don’t attack their position. Look behind it. 2. Don’t defend your ideas. Invite advice. 3. Recast an attack on you as an attack on the problem. 4. Ask questions and pause. 5. Use silence as a weapon.
Exercise: Redirect You are in a heated argument with a colleague who attacks your idea for a new product. The attack gets personal. How should you respond? If the attack is from your boss, how should you respond?
Critical Elements Time Information Power Reward – give benefit Coerce – punish Expert – knowledge Legitimate – prescribe behavior Referent – attract options
The Negotiation Table Prepare: Set goals Collect information Construct agenda Identify initial BATNA Deliver core message
At the Negotiation Table Interests – Identify yours and the other’s Options – what are the possible options open to you and the other? Objective Criteria – What objective data will you use to assess whether or not options are acceptable? Alternatives to Agreement – If you cannot reach an agreement, what are all the possibilities? (continue to develop BATNA)
Deciphering the Conflict Elements Positions Interests BATNA Bottom Line (non-negotiable) Objective Criteria
Relationships vs. Tasks Task conflict – how to do it best Relationship conflict – about feelings Much easer to negotiate at the task level!
Critical Elements of Negotiation Time: The value of an agreement is reduced by the amount of time and effort that is invested in reaching that agreement Information: The side with the most and the best information usually receives the best outcome in a negotiation Power: Ability to influence people or situations