2What is a Presentation?It is the process of presenting the content of a topic to an audience consisting of one or more persons. A one way communication where you present and others listenIt is focused on a specific topic and on specific peopleHas a Specific Time & PlaceIt utilizes some visual aid.It is generally a PowerPoint file containing all the slides for a given speech.
3Steps for Creating a Presentation StrategyStructurePresentation StyleHandling Questions
4Formulating a Strategy!!! It is critical to know the purpose of communication.Knowing the audience and expectations of the audience is very important to decide what to present and how to present.Tailor your presentation to the audience w.r.t to their needs, desires, knowledge level and attitude towards the topic.Be concrete, specific, practical, and relevant.Be clear about your objective – is it to motivate, inform, persuade, teach?Research your topic thoroughly.
5Developing a Structure of the Presentation Once you know what you want to say, you need to organize all the information in a structured manner.Do not assume that the information will speak for itself.The audience might interpret the information in different ways based on your organization and presentation.
6The audience needs to have the following basic questions answered:Why should I pay attention to you when I can think about more interesting things?Now that I am listening, why should I care about this issue?I agree with the significance of the topic, but how are you justifying your ideas?So, now that I am convinced, what do you want from me?
7Some pointers while organizing your ideas: begin by placing your topic in context; you might want to provide an outline or a road map.provide the intended, expected benefits, organization of the presentation, and ground rules.organize the body of the presentation logically - make it easy to follow - go from the simple to the complex.when appropriate, plan ways to encourage audience participation.maintain credibility: discuss the pros and cons.conclude on a "high note" - include an overall summary and proposed actions or options.incorporate visual aids effectively – graphs, pictures, etcprepare for contingencies - practice your presentation and prepare for contingencies – rehearse.
8Steps Of Presentation The Introduction First Impressions Credibility Develop Image in an Interesting MannerDo or Say Something In Accordance with The OccasionCall For AttentionInvite Direct Involvement From The AudienceSurprise & Challenge The Audience & It’s AssumptionsCreate Positive Impact By Exhibiting Proper Personal Basic
9Steps Of Presentation The Main Body Structuring Your Speech Break up the topic.Have chronological order.Go thro’ a problem & solution oriented approach.Maintain The attention Of Your Audience.HumorSurprise element through questions.Eliciting opinions from the audience.Visual aids.Short sentences & simple language.
10Steps Of Presentation Review the benefits of each theme/topic. Reiterate in strong, memorable words and phrases the crux of the presentation.End with something the audience will remember.
11Gathering “Your Material” & Preparing Prepare Confidence / Cue CardsPrepare Presentation MaterialPrepare Delegate Handouts / Give-AwaysRehearse: Remember,“Practice Makes You Perfect”
12Effective Use Of Visual Aids – “Do”s Limit The Number Of Aids You UseUse It As An Aid OnlyBe Comfortable In Using The AidKeep Your Visual Aids In A Position Of Maximum VisibilityUse The Pointer To Point, Not AccuseIf Using An OHP Or Slide Projector, Put It “ON” Only For The Duration For Which It Is Required
13Effective Use Of Visual Aids – “Don’t”s Do not put Excessive InformationDo not face the Visual Aid while using itDo not try to talk and write at the same timeDo not stand in front of the Visual AidDo not leave blank illuminated screens, they Cause Distractions
14Controlling Your Audience Check That Everyone Can See You and Vice-a-versaPositive Body LanguageMaintain Eye ContactVoice ModulationUse QuestionsBringing In – Shutting Out
15Style (Contd…) Techniques to gain and maintain attention: Convey ‘controlled enthusiasm’ for your subject – the audience will forgive a lot if the speaker is enthusiastic.Pay attention to posture and tone.Your audience will mirror your attitude – radiate confidence without preaching.Don’t confuse enthusiasm with loudness; try to convey a range of emotions from concern, anticipation, excitement, dismay.Where appropriate, candidly discuss pros and cons; explain advantages first and then the risks and challenges.
16Style (Contd…) Gaining audience interest: Provide variety and relief if possible; novelty and uniqueness will increase the impact.Alternate moving and standing still, speaking and listening, doing and thinking; use physical space and body movement to enhance your message.Try to add stories, anecdotes, testimonials, analogies, demonstrations.Use humor appropriately - make it in good taste.Try to position yourself to enhance interaction with the audience.Eye contact is your primary tool for establishing audience involvement; look at your audience in random rotating order.Use gestures naturally: some gestures are wrong - jingling change in a pocket, toying with notes, shifting from one foot to the other; or any repeated gesture.
17Style (Contd…)Once audience interest is gained, you must help them to retain it.You need to help the audience refocus periodically – reiteration, conclusions.
18Positive Body Signals Leaning Forward Coming Closer Eye Contact Touch or PattingStanding StraightBody tilted Towards YouNodding
19Negative Body Signals Drooping / Looking bored Leaning Against / Leaning BackScowlingFrowningUnchanging ExpressionsStraight GazeFolded Arms / Crossed LegsTurning Away From SpeakerHands Behind NeckDrumming FingersShifting Body Position Frequently
20Handling Objections / questions Ask "friendly" questions - don't use questions to embarrass or harass othersAvoid asking risky questions - that is, questions that may indicate that other person lacks knowledge or intelligenceDon't let respondents wander or attempt to take control of the presentation; a polite "thank you, that's what I was looking for" can get you back on trackAvoid isolated one-on-one dialogues with specific individualsWhen challenged, be candid and firm but avoid over respondingMaintain control of the sessionBe firm and assertive without being aggressive or defensiveDon't let interruptions disrupt your composure
21Handling questions and challenges Anticipate questions and prepare responsesRehearse answers to difficult questionsIf necessary, offer to obtain additional informationAvoid rhetorical questions - ask interesting questions that are thought provoking but not too difficult to answerAsk some open ended question with no right or wrong answers - encourage sharing experiences, feelings, opinionsPrepare key questions prior to the presentation; it is difficult to think of good questions on your feet
22Handling questions and challenges (Contd…) Guidelines for answering questions:Anticipate Questions: think of the ten most likely questions and plan out your answer.Understand the Question: paraphrase it if necessary; repeat it if needed.Plan the Answer: particularly if you anticipated the question.Do Not Digress.Be Honest: if you can't answer the question, say so.Reinterpret Loaded Questions: if attacked try to show the similarity to other situations.Control Interchanges: if a member of the audience becomes a heckler try to enlist the audience; if a questioner digresses, try to remind the audience of the goal of the presentationUse the Last Question to Summarize.
23Conclusion: Checklist for an effective presentation Start preparing early; don't wait until the last few days to prepare.Think about Your Audience.Be clear about your purpose.Use an effective introduction.Organize your presentation clearly and simply.Use supporting material to support your point.Create an effective conclusion.Sound spontaneous, conversational and enthusiastic.Use body language effectively.Use visual aids to enhance the message.Check the physical environment in advance.Finally, cope with stage fright by remembering that it is normal and everyone feels it.