2 Five Main Religions of South Asia HinduismBuddhismJainismIslam---We studied Islam in depth in the Middle East Unit, so we will not be learning about this religion within this lesson.Sikhism
3 What Religions are found in India? Hinduism: 81.3%Buddhism: 0.7%Islam: 12%Christianity: 2.3%Jainism: 0.5%Sikhism: 1.9%
4 CULTURE OF SOUTH ASIAA culturally fragmented regionReligious and linguistic diversityReligionsIslam is predominant in Pakistan and Bangladesh (165 million in India).Hinduism is predominant in India.Sikhism thrives in northern India.Buddhism is predominant in Sri Lanka.4
5 Islam swept through central India from the 8th -10th centuries AD Hinduism emerged from the beliefs and practices brought to India by the Aryans. (6th century BC)Buddhism emerged during the 6th century BC; made the state religion of India in 3rd century BCIslam swept through central India from the 8th -10th centuries AD5
6 RELIGIOUS CONTRASTS ISLAM HINDUISM Monotheistic Polytheistic No idols One sacred bookUniform dogma - 5 pillarsIntolerant (of other religions)Eat beef/Sacrifice cowsBury DeadSocial Equality (in theory)Theocratic societyHINDUISMPolytheisticMany idolsVarious sacred writingsVarying beliefsAbsorbed other religionsVenerate cowsBurn dead (& alive)Caste separation“State” of secondary importance6
7 Hindu/Muslim-practices/perceptions Hindus tend to be vegetarians (ahimsa and reincarnation beliefs foster this)Cows are sacred animalsBelieve in reincarnationBrahman, if it is God, is an impersonal oneFollow caste system – no social or religious mobility within one lifetimeFormerly practiced suteeMuslims see Hindus as polytheistic infidels not to be toleratedMuslims eat meat (cows) – not porkMuslims are strict monotheistsMuslims believe in a personal GodMuslims reject the concept of castes – equality of believersReject reincarnationGlobalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
8 Similarities Between Hinduism and Buddhism Both religions believe in the concept of karma and reincarnation.Both emphasize compassion and non-violence towards all living beings.Both believe in spiritual practices like meditation and concentration to help reach a certain state of mind.Both believe in renunciation of worldly life to enter spiritual life. Both consider desire as the chief cause of suffering.Both believe that liberation, nor rebirth or heavenly life, is the best solution to the problem of suffering and bondage.
9 Similarities Between Hinduism and Buddhism Both believe the goal of religion is to attain enlightenment and be released from the cycle of rebirth and death.This is not all the similarities, but a starting point for your compare and contrast essay!
10 Differences Between Hinduism and Buddhism Hinduism was not founded by any prophet. Buddhism was founded by the Buddha.Hinduism believes in the supremacy of the Vedas and Caste System. While Buddhists reject the Vedas and Caste System.Buddhism does not believe in the existence of souls who come from God. While Hindus believe in the existence of Atman, which is the individual soul and Brahman, the Supreme Creator.
11 Differences Between Hinduism and Buddhism Hinduism believes in the trinity of Gods. The Buddhist doe not accept any Hindu god either as an equal or superior to the Buddha.The original followers of Buddhism as taught by Buddha do not worship the images of Buddha nor believe in the Bodhisattvas.Hinduism recognizes four chief aims of life: dharma, artha, kama, and mosksha. Buddhism considers the world full of suffering and resolving it the chief purpose of life through dharma and liberation/nirvana.
12 Differences Between Hinduism and Buddhism Hindus believe in the four ashrams or stages of life. This is not followed in Buddhism. People can join the Buddhist Order any time depending on their spiritual preparedness.Buddhists organize themselves into a monastic Order. And the monks live in groups. Hinduism is basically a religion of the individual.
13 Differences Between Hinduism and Buddhism Buddhism believes in the concept of Bodhisattvas. Hinduism does not.Buddhism acknowledges the existence of some gods and goddesses, but they are not very important.Buddhists require following the Eight-Fold Path and believing in the Four Noble Truths for liberation. Hinduism offers many choices to its followers on the path of self-realization.
14 Differences Between Hinduism and Buddhism Although both religions believe in karma and rebirth, they differ in the manner in which they operate and the impact they have on the existence of individual beings.A God or gods have been wholly rejected by Theravda Buddhists. Their only refuge are the three jewels of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha.
15 Differences Between Hinduism and Buddhism The previous slides contain only some of the differences, but not all.They are a starting point for your compare and contrast essay.
17 HINDUISM One of the world’s oldest religions. Not just a religion; also a culture in itself.17
18 Hinduism Originated more than 3000 year ago. Do not have 1 specific founder.3rd most practiced religion in the world with about 1 billion followers (1.4 million in US)Originated in IndiaBelief in a supreme spiritOldest in the world but developed over the centuries from many different texts.There is no hierarchy like Catholic
19 ReligionsHinduismGrew out the Aryan culture, the Vedas, and the work of Brahman priestsEveryone has a moral duty: dharmaGood actions are rewarded and bad ones punished: karmaPeople are reincarnated and either move up or down on the caste system based on their karmaUltimate goal is to be reunited with the universal spirit after living as Brahman priest
20 2500 – 250 BCHinduismThe religion of Hinduism developed and evolved over a long time in India, giving rise to a variety of beliefs and practices and to other religions, including Buddhism.One of the oldest religions of humanity, founded in 1500 BCE or earlier.It is the 3rd largest religion in the world.No particular founderBrahman
21 BackgroundThe term Hindu originates from the Sindhu, the ancient name for the Indus river.Classical language=Sanskrit. It is the language for Hinduism and is one of India’s 22 official languages (less than fluent)The faiths traditions and beliefs developed from the ancient Vedic tradition.
22 MAJOR TENETS OF HINDUISM Three main ideas are important in understanding the Hindu religion and the caste systemReincarnationKarmaDharma22
23 REINCARNATION Every living thing has a soul. When a living thing dies, its soul moves into another living creature.Souls are reborn in a newly created life.23
24 What is reincarnation according to the Hindus? It is rebirth of the soul in various forms.After the body dies, the soul may be reborn as anything from a god to a flower to a snake.Each form in only temporary.
25 KARMA Every action brings about certain results. There is no escaping the consequences of one’s actions.Good behavior is rewarded when the soul is reborn into a higher ranking living creature.25
26 KarmaThe cycle of reincarnation continues until one reaches moksha. The cycle is governed by the law of karma.Karma is derived from the Sanskrit word: ‘to do”.The law of karma states that every deed-mental or physical-in this life affects a person’s fate in a future life.Your present situation is the result of your deeds in a past existence, says karmic law.
27 Hinduism– Beliefs How does a Hindu achieve moksha? Karma: every deed in a person’s life affects a person’s fate in a future lifeReincarnation: rebirth of the soulKarma determines where you are reincarnated in the caste systemGood Karma = higher in caste systemBad Karma = lower in caste system
28 DHARMAA set of rules that must be followed by all living things if they wish to work their way up the ladder of reincarnation.Each person’s dharma is different.28
29 Hinduism– Beliefs How does a Hindu achieve moksha? Dharma: duties and obligations of your casteDoing your dharma will get you good karma
30 Hinduism– Beliefs Atman: the essential self Also, part of the Brahman NonviolenceEvery living thing has an atman
31 Unity of all Life---Atman “The essential self or the vital essence in human is the same as that in an ant, the same as that in a gnat, the same as that in an elephant…indeed the same as that in the whole universe.”
32 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff AhimsaSeeing all life as sacred – a part of a “oneness”Results in the life principle of non-violenceSupports the idea of being in harmony with natureA principle also found in Jainism and BuddhismGlobalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
33 Hinduism– Beliefs Moksha: freeing your atman/soul from your body The ultimate goal of all HindusYour atman is reunited with the Brahman and you will have true peace.Brahman
34 Hinduism– Beliefs How does a Hindu achieve moksha? Caste system: strict social classesHanded down from the Aryan varnaA Hindu must reach the top of the caste system in order to achieve mokshaHow do you get to the top?Priests, “brahman”Traders, merchantsCommoners, peasantsUntouchables
35 CASTE SYSTEM 1) Brahmans, the priestly and learned class; 2) Kshatriyas, the warriors and rulers;3) Vaisyas, farmers and merchants;4) Sudras, peasants and laborers.5) Panchamas, “the untouchables” whoperformed the most menial tasks.35
36 The Varna (Caste System) 4 different castes– Never change within a lifetime.Brahmin- priests and educated peopleKshatria- Rulers and AristocratsVaisia- Landlords and BusinessmenSundra- Peasants and working classUntouchables (literally cannot be touched by the other 4 castes)- Cleaning, sewage, etc.
37 Jat The Varna is broken down further into various Jat or Jati. Must eat according to CasteMust work according to CasteMust marry within the Caste
38 Hinduism– Beliefs Brahman: the single supreme force of the universe Only a few people can fully understand itMany gods are worshiped as part of the BrahmanNameless, formless, unlimitedNames and faces given to certain aspects of the Brahman:Shiva, destroyerBrahma, creatorVishnu, protector
39 2500 – 250 BCWhat do Hindus believe?1. Brahman -the eternal being - created and preserves the world. Everything in the world is an aspect of Brahman.2. Atman - the soul – each person has one that is an aspect of Brahman. Can’t ever be destroyed.3. Devas – manifestations of Brahman that are active in the world and who help to maintain order.3 of the most common—Brahma, Vishnu, & Siva4. Reincarnation – being reborn into this world lifetime after lifetime (Samsara)5. Karma – the sum effect of a person’s actions, good and bad, which helps shape future experiences6. Moksha - goal of human existence, escape from the cycle of reincarnation to join with the Brahman.7. Dharma – set of spiritual duties and obligations that must be fulfilled to achieve moksha.
40 HinduismSacred textsVedas – scriptures/hymns that explain Hindu teachingsUpanishadsHelp explain the ideas of the VedasVedas
41 Vedas and Roots of Hinduism Unlike many religions, Hinduism bases its principles on a collection of teachings compiled over time.Earliest collection are the Vedas Scriptures.Other notable scriptures are the Bhagavad-Gita, the Brahma Sutras, and the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata
42 What are the Sacred Texts? 2500 – 250 BCWhat are the Sacred Texts?Oldest, most authoritative:1. Four Vedas (“truth”) – sacred hymns of praiseContain knowledge revealed by Brahman2. Upanishads – philosophical reflections on the VedasAlso revealed to, not written by, peoplethe Great Indian Epics (composed by sages)RamayanaMahabharata (includes Bhagavad-Gita)Both tell stories that reflect on what it means to live according to Vedic teachings
43 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff THREE BASIC PRACTICESPuja or worship – corporate worship not required – largely individual practicesCremation of the deadRegulations of the caste systemGlobalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
44 What are the religious practices of Hinduism? 2500 – 250 BCWhat are the religious practices of Hinduism?Vary greatly because worship can take place anywhere—usually a temple or in the home.Spiritual leaders are called gurus or sages.Yoga-integrated physical and mental exercises. They teach people to focus their minds and bodies which will aid their meditation in order to attain mokshaPilgrimage to Ganges (thought it flows through 2 devas so its water is holy. Bathing in it will purify them and remove bad karma.Ultimate goal of life – to release Atman and reunite with the divine, becoming as one with Brahman (Moksha)
45 Hindu and Diet Many Hindus are vegetarian Since the divine soul flows through all beings, many devout Hindus support non-violence.Some will not eat meat on important daysIf meat is eaten, usually fish or chickenCows are Venerated (highly respected) at it is illegal to slaughter a cow in most Indian statesBecause they provided milk and helped plow fields. They were caretakers
46 Who do Hindus worship? – 3 Most Important Devas 2500 – 250 BCWho do Hindus worship? – 3 Most Important DevasBrahma, the creatorVishnu, the PreserverSiva, the Destroyer
47 The Three Main Gods of Hinduism Brahma: the creatorVishnu: the preserverShiva: the destroyerDifferent sects worship different gods and their families.Hindus believe in the unity of all life and every person has an essential self or atman: part of the universal soul.
54 Festivals Diwali, also known as the festival of lights. Ganesh Chaturthi, the festival celebrating Lord Ganesha.Maha Shivaratri, The night of Lord Shiva when he drank Halahala to save gods and demons from its effect.Ramanavami, celebrates the birthday of Lord RamHoli, The spring festival of colors and light.
55 SymbolsAum- (Om) is the most sacred symbol of Hinduism. Most mantras begin with this sound. It represents Brahman (the universal spirit)Swastika- Represents the 4 Vedas
56 Hinduism – Map! Hinduism in 1500 C.E. Hinduism Today AUM! AUM! AUM! Hinduism located in India and SE AsiaThen and Now
59 2500 – 250 BCBuddhismBuddhism, which teaches people that they can escape the suffering of the world through the Buddhist teachings, developed in Northeast India in 520 BCE and spread to other parts of Asia4th largest religion in the world
60 BUDDHISM Founded by: Siddhartha Gautama (563 - 483 B.C.) Focuses on knowledge, especially self-knowledgeElimination of worldly desires, determination not to hurt or kill people or animals60
61 Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, founder He was a reformer who tried to limit the power of the brahman, or priest, caste in India
62 Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) Unlike Hinduism, Buddhism can be traced to one single founder, Siddhartha GautamaPrince of a small kingdom; he lived a sheltered life and sought the answer to ending sufferingAfter years of meditation and searching, he sat under a Bodhi tree where he became EnlightenedHe transformed into the Buddha-the Enlightened One.
63 Siddhartha Gautama Born in 560 BCE into wealth One day journeyed beyond walls and saw suffering.He left his wife and family and searched out the cause of suffering.After six years of searching he found enlightenment while sitting under a sacred tree.
64 Was Buddha a Hindu?Yes: he thought of himself as a Hindu and believed in reincarnation and karma.He did deny the existence of any gods and thought that priests were unnecessary.People had to seek nirvana on their own.
65 Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff BUDDHISMObjected to harsher features of Hinduism such as the caste systemFocuses on knowledge, especially self-knowledgeEnlightenment ends the cycle of reincarnationElimination of worldly desires, determination not to hurt or kill people or animalsGlobalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff
66 What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? 2500 – 250 BCThe Teachings of BuddhismWhat is the fundamental cause of all suffering?Desire!Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself. Give up all materials and possessions of the world.
67 Buddhism The Four Noble Truths Suffering is universal The cause of suffering is want/desireThe only way to end suffering is to end desireNirvana: condition of wanting nothingThe way to achieve nirvana is to follow the Eightfold PathCompassion for all creatures, kindness, truthfulness, meditation
68 FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS Sorrow and suffering are part of all life. People suffer because they desire things they cannot have.The way to escape suffering is to end desire.To end desire, follow the “middle path.”68
69 Eightfold Path Right Understanding Right Intention Right Speech 2500 – 250 BCRight UnderstandingRight IntentionRight SpeechRight ActionRight LivelihoodRight EffortRight ConcentrationRight Mindfulness
70 EIGHTFOLD PATH TO THE MIDDLE WAY Right understandingRight purposeRight speechRight conductRight means of earning a livingRight effortRight awarenessRight meditation70
71 Eightfold Path Nirvana 2500 – 250 BCEightfold PathNirvanaNirvana is a state of perfect peace in which the soul would be free from suffering forever. It would escape from the cycle of rebirth.If nirvana is not achieved, then the soul would be reborn to live through the cycle of suffering again.Spiritual leaders are called monks or lamas.Worship takes place in a temple or meditation hall.
72 Buddhism– Beliefs Ultimate goal of Buddhism: End suffering by achieving nirvana.Once you are in the condition of wanting nothing, you will be Enlightened, or understand the universe and cause of human suffering
73 Could you do it? No drinking or mind-altering substances. No eating animals (vegetarian)No violence.No doing harm to any living creature, verbally or physically.Constant meditationGiving up material possessions
74 Sacred TextsPali CanonDhammapadaBoth record the words of the Buddha
75 Spread of BuddhismPeople began carrying the message of Buddhism throughout AsiaMonasteries and convents provided a place where people could devote themselves to the Eightfold Path.Two sects developedTheravada– Did not worship anyoneMahayana– Worshiped Buddha and other enlightened ones as god
76 Buddhism Two main Buddhists sects have emerged Theravada: monastic life to reach nirvana, Buddha is a great teacherMahayana: worship Buddha as a god, more popular
77 Types of Buddhism Therevada Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism 2500 – 250 BCTypes of BuddhismTherevada BuddhismMahayana BuddhismTibetan Buddhism
78 Theravada Buddhism The oldest school of Buddhism. 2500 – 250 BCTheravada BuddhismThe oldest school of Buddhism.Found in southern Asia.The monastic life is the best way to achieve nirvana.Focus on wisdom and meditation.Goal is to become a “Buddha,” or “Enlightened One.”Over 100,000,000 followers today.
79 Mahayana Buddhism Founded in northern Asia (China, Japan). 2500 – 250 BCMahayana BuddhismFounded in northern Asia (China, Japan).Buddhism “for the masses.”One doesn’t need to be a monk or nun to reach nirvana; anyone can do it with some help.Seek guidance from Boddhisatvas, wise beings, people who have found enlightenment but have stayed on earth to help others find their way.Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self-sacrifice of those who are already enlightened.d few.
80 Tibetan Buddhism Developed in Tibet in the 7c CE. 2500 – 250 BCTibetan BuddhismDeveloped in Tibet in the 7c CE.A mix of Theravada and Mahayana.Boddhisatvas include Lamas, like the Dalai Lama.
81 Buddhism – Map! Buddhism in 1500 C.E. Buddhism Today Buddhism located in Southeast and East Asia (China) Then and Now
82 Buddhism– Beliefs Similarities with Hinduism Differences with Hinduism 1. Belief in reincarnation2. Belief in nonviolenceDifferences with HinduismBuddhists deny the existence of godsPriests are not necessary, you must seek nirvana on your ownBuddhists reject the caste system
83 Buddhism Vs. Hinduism Siddhartha believed himself to be a Hindu NeverthelessRejected the caste systemGod did not existPriest were not necessary– Individual journeySimilaritiesReincarnationKarmaDharmaNirvana (Moksha) self-enlightenment
85 THE ORIGINS OF JAINISM Vardhamana (“He who augments”): Born c. 599 BCE in Patna, city on the Ganges River in northeastern India, to kşatriya familyPossibly elder contemporary of the Buddha ŞakyamuniBecame renunciant at age 30After 13 years of severe asceticism, achieved kevala-jñana (“unique knowledge,” omniscience)Hailed as Jina (“victor”) and Mahāvīra (“Great Hero”)Attracted disciples, whom he accepted from both genders and all classesStarved himself to death at 72 in order to obtain mokşa
86 Jainism Jainism Based on Hinduism 3 Jewels– Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right ConductMahivira was the founderEmphasized Ahimsa (non-violence)Strict vegetariansSwept ground to avoid killingReincarnationObjective– Rid jiva (soul) of all KharmaGods do not help (religion of self-help)
87 THE TEACHINGS OF THE MAHĀVĪRA All matter (animal, vegetable, mineral) is alive (hylozoism)The cosmos proceeds in a series of ascending and declining phases, without creation or intervention by deitiesThe self (jīva):Completely individualEternalEncumbered by karma, thus preventing its ascent to realms of bliss after death (mokşa)Path to mokşa:Ahimsā (nonviolence) – to purify one’s karma for better rebirthTapas (“heat,” asceticism) – to eliminate karmic encumbrances
88 Jainism Continued 5 Mahavratas Non Violence Non-Attachment Sexual RestraintNot LyingNot StealingAgamas– Sacred texts (had to be memorized due to non-attachment)2 Sects-- the Digambara (meaning "sky clad") sect and the Svetambara (meaning "white clad") sectNuns and Monks are spiritual leaders
89 JAINA ETHICSPrimary ethical obligation for all Jainas (lay or monastic): ahimsāCommitment to nonviolence in one’s work, as well as social roots of Jaina movement, account for predominance of Jainas in mercantile professionLaypersons take 5 vows:To avoid violenceTo avoid lyingTo avoid theftTo avoid illicit sexTo avoid material attachmentsMonastics follow stricter code, involving meditation, fasting, voluntary poverty, etc.
90 JAINA RITUAL LIFEIn theory, mokşa attainable only through conscientious individual effort, without need for deities, priests, or sacrificesIn practice, many aspects of Hindu tradition are assimilated to Jaina spirituality:Veneration of images, including those of explicitly Hindu deitiesConstruction of templesConceptualization of Brahman as totality of liberated jivasPrayer to TirthankarasTheism and devotionalism rationalized as participation in the karmic merit (punya) of the Tirthankaras
92 Historical Origins Sikhism Sikhism was founded within the region of five rivers, known as Punjab. This region, where Sikhism was founded, blossomed and formalized as a faith, is now split within the countries of India and Pakistan.CHINAIRAN22 million Sikhs worldwide20 million Sikhs in IndiaINDIAAFGHANISTANPAKISTANINDIA
93 Guru Nanak Founded Sikhism Born in 1469 10 Gurus provided spiritual guidanceGuru Nanak founded Sikhism based on equality and justice for allThe Sikh religion was founded by Guru Nanak, who was born in 1469 ADTo give a point of reference, Columbus came to America in 1492.Thus, compared to Judaism, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam, it is the youngest and the most modern of the religions being practiced today.Guru Nanak and the nine Gurus, who succeeded him, set a wonderful example of living spiritually, while yet taking an active and secular part in the world. The Gurus provided guidance to the Sikhs for 239 years.They taught the basic values of Kirat Karni, Naam Japna, and Vand Chhakna. These three concepts in a nut-shell, describe how a Sikh balances the spiritual part of life with the material one.
94 Sikhism Sikhism 1500 CE Nanak was the founder One God- Waheguru Teachings of 10 Sikh gurusGuru Granth Sahib (the holy scripture)Punjab – almost exclusivelyAttention on god rather than selfKarmaBecome one with god by serving others
95 Beliefs of the Sikhs One god/creator All humans created equal Goal is to be one with godHuman life a precious blessingAll carry a spark of divine light: consequently no race, pigmentation, gender, is intrinsically superior to othersDefenders of social and spiritual justice,Truth, fearless,non-hateful spirit are important in attaining salvation
96 Beliefs of the Sikhs Freedom of speech, religion Equal rights in all walks of life for all persons of all faiths and external looksNote that many countries still ask require religion, race, or nationality on employment applicationsElsewhere, people discriminate based on looksCompensation based on merit rather than outward differencesJustice and liberty for allOrigin of universe is from one light sourceLife is by god’s evolutionThere are many planets, solar systems and galaxies
97 Values & Practices Seva: Daily selfless service to humanity Vand Chakna: sharing with othersLangar: Community Kitchen,An expression of service to communityKirat Kamaiyee: Honest LaborHonest earnings by hard workDo not become burden on the societyDaily Prayers & MeditationNo passive mediationMaintain channel of knowledge by actively engaging in the society.Prevent stagnation of social and intellectual skillsIntrospection connect now, don’t wait for laterBhai Kanyiapioneer of the Red Cross &humanitarian aide organizations
98 Respect for All Protectors of social and spiritual justice for ALL Believers of non-violenceEquality of all religionsGive relevance to god rather than religionBelievers of interfaith diversityEquality of personsSocial, spiritual, political rights for all women
99 Sikhism 3 foci 5 Vices Keep god in mind at all times Earn an honest livingGive help to others5 VicesLustCovetousness and greedAttachment to things of this worldAngerPride
100 The Five K’sEvery man and woman who belongs to the Khalsa must wear five symbols which show that they are Sikhs.They are usually called the Five K’s because in Punjabi their names all begin with the letter ‘K’.
101 (1) KeshKesh is hair. Sikhs promise not to cut their hair but let it grow as a symbol of their faith. Because during their lifetimes it will get very long they wear turbans to keep it tidy.They believe that this demonstrates their obedience to God.A Sikh wearing a Turban
102 (2) KanghaThe Kangha is a small wooden comb. It keeps the hair fixed in place, and is a symbol of cleanliness. Combing their hair reminds Sikhs that their lives should be tidy and organised. Take note year 6!The Kangha
103 (3) The KaraThe kara is a steel bangle worn on the arm. It is a closed circle with no beginning and no end...as with God there is no beginning and no end.It is a reminder to behave well, keep faith and restrain from wrong doing. Wearing it will remind a Sikh of his duties.The Kara
104 The last two K’s are: The Kachera The Kirpan The Last two are a reminder that Sikhs are warriors and always fight for what is right!The last two K’s are:The KacheraThe Kirpan
105 (4) The KacheraThese are short trousers worn as underwear. They were more practical than the long, loose clothes most people in India wore at the time of Guru Gobind Singh.The Guru said they were a symbol that Sikhs were leaving old ideas behind, following new better ones.The Kachera
106 (5) The KirpanThe warriors sword. These days a very tiny one is worn as a symbol of dignity and self respect.It demonstrates power and reminds Sikhs that they must fight a spiritual battle, defend the weak and oppressed, and uphold the truth.The Kirpan
107 Sikh Turbans Mideast headcoverings different 99% of people with turbans in US are Sikhs, not Muslims or HindusCovers long, uncut hairApprox. 15 feet of cloth wrapped neatly around the head every time it is put onSymbolizes discipline, integrity, humility, and spiritualityReligious requirement - must be worn at all times in publicIn the United States, the people you most often see wearing turbans are members of the Sikh religion. Head coverings originating in the Middle East are typically of a different style and are worn for different reasons.The Sikh turban is a long piece of cloth wrapped neatly around the head several times and looking like a football from the side.Sikhs wear turbans as symbols and reminders of their core values: discipline, honesty, integrity, ethics, spirituality and humility, and to distinguish their unique identity as protectors of the values they revere.The turban covers the uncut hair - another physical attribute of Sikh spirituality.A Sikh wears a turban because he is proud of being a Sikh, and proud of the values that Sikhism represents – including defense of the innocent, equality of gender, race, caste, and creed, and community service. Today, a fellow American who sees a person wearing a turban in America should feel a sense of security, knowing that every Sikh is honor-bound to stand against tyranny and protect all those who need their help.
108 Importance of Identity Sikhs feel severely humiliated if asked to remove their turban in public, as this breaks a sacred covenant with god and exposes an intimate part of the bodyIt is very insulting and disrespectful to a Sikh to remove his or her turbanTurbans are a mandatory part of Sikh faithA turban is not a hat. It cannot be casually taken on and off. It must be carefully retied each time it is removedTreat the turban with respectSikhs feel severely humiliated if asked to remove their turban in public, as this breaks a sacred covenant with God and exposes an intimate part of the bodyIt is very insulting and disrespectful to a Sikh to remove his or her turbanTurbans are a mandatory part of Sikh faithA turban is not a hat. It cannot be casually taken on and off. It must be carefully retied each time it is removedTreat the turban with respect
109 Golden Temple Golden Temple, Amritsar Harmandir Sahib—1588 Fifth Guru Sentiment of SikhsSymbol of strength & enduranceSurvived tyrannical raidsThe fourth Guru founded the present-day city of Amritsar, where the fifth Guru, Guru Arjan, built the Gurdwaras.The most famous of all the Sikh Gurdwara’s is the Harmandir Sahib which was built in It was embellished with marble and gold leaf by Maharaja Ranjit Singh in the 1800’s, and is now known, in English, as the Golden Temple.Over the years, the Harmandir Sahib has been the symbol of Sikh sentiments, as it has been repeatedly razed, bombed by those wanting to quell the Sikhs, or to coerce them into conversion to other faiths.