Presentation on theme: "Religions of South Asia. Five Main Religions of South Asia Hinduism Buddhism Jainism Islam---We studied Islam in depth in the Middle East Unit,"— Presentation transcript:
Religions of South Asia
Five Main Religions of South Asia Hinduism Buddhism Jainism Islam---We studied Islam in depth in the Middle East Unit, so we will not be learning about this religion within this lesson. Sikhism
What Religions are found in India? Hinduism: 81.3% Buddhism: 0.7% Islam: 12% Christianity: 2.3% Jainism: 0.5% Sikhism: 1.9%
CULTURE OF SOUTH ASIA A culturally fragmented region Religious and linguistic diversity Religions Islam is predominant in Pakistan and Bangladesh (165 million in India). Hinduism is predominant in India. Sikhism thrives in northern India. Buddhism is predominant in Sri Lanka.
Hinduism emerged from the beliefs and practices brought to India by the Aryans. (6th century BC) Buddhism emerged during the 6 th century BC; made the state religion of India in 3rd century BC Islam swept through central India from the 8th -10th centuries AD
RELIGIOUS CONTRASTS ISLAM Monotheistic No idols One sacred book Uniform dogma - 5 pillars Intolerant (of other religions) Eat beef/Sacrifice cows Bury Dead Social Equality (in theory) Theocratic society HINDUISM Polytheistic Many idols Various sacred writings Varying beliefs Absorbed other religions Venerate cows Burn dead (& alive) Caste separation “State” of secondary importance
Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 7 Hindu/Muslim-practices/perceptions Hindus tend to be vegetarians (ahimsa and reincarnation beliefs foster this) Cows are sacred animals Believe in reincarnation Brahman, if it is God, is an impersonal one Follow caste system – no social or religious mobility within one lifetime Formerly practiced sutee Muslims see Hindus as polytheistic infidels not to be tolerated Muslims eat meat (cows) – not pork Muslims are strict monotheists Muslims believe in a personal God Muslims reject the concept of castes – equality of believers Reject reincarnation
Similarities Between Hinduism and Buddhism Both religions believe in the concept of karma and reincarnation. Both emphasize compassion and non- violence towards all living beings. Both believe in spiritual practices like meditation and concentration to help reach a certain state of mind. Both believe in renunciation of worldly life to enter spiritual life. Both consider desire as the chief cause of suffering. Both believe that liberation, nor rebirth or heavenly life, is the best solution to the problem of suffering and bondage.
Similarities Between Hinduism and Buddhism Both believe the goal of religion is to attain enlightenment and be released from the cycle of rebirth and death. This is not all the similarities, but a starting point for your compare and contrast essay!
Differences Between Hinduism and Buddhism Hinduism was not founded by any prophet. Buddhism was founded by the Buddha. Hinduism believes in the supremacy of the Vedas and Caste System. While Buddhists reject the Vedas and Caste System. Buddhism does not believe in the existence of souls who come from God. While Hindus believe in the existence of Atman, which is the individual soul and Brahman, the Supreme Creator.
Differences Between Hinduism and Buddhism Hinduism believes in the trinity of Gods. The Buddhist doe not accept any Hindu god either as an equal or superior to the Buddha. The original followers of Buddhism as taught by Buddha do not worship the images of Buddha nor believe in the Bodhisattvas. Hinduism recognizes four chief aims of life: dharma, artha, kama, and mosksha. Buddhism considers the world full of suffering and resolving it the chief purpose of life through dharma and liberation/nirvana.
Differences Between Hinduism and Buddhism Hindus believe in the four ashrams or stages of life. This is not followed in Buddhism. People can join the Buddhist Order any time depending on their spiritual preparedness. Buddhists organize themselves into a monastic Order. And the monks live in groups. Hinduism is basically a religion of the individual.
Differences Between Hinduism and Buddhism Buddhism believes in the concept of Bodhisattvas. Hinduism does not. Buddhism acknowledges the existence of some gods and goddesses, but they are not very important. Buddhists require following the Eight- Fold Path and believing in the Four Noble Truths for liberation. Hinduism offers many choices to its followers on the path of self- realization.
Differences Between Hinduism and Buddhism Although both religions believe in karma and rebirth, they differ in the manner in which they operate and the impact they have on the existence of individual beings. A God or gods have been wholly rejected by Theravda Buddhists. Their only refuge are the three jewels of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha.
Differences Between Hinduism and Buddhism The previous slides contain only some of the differences, but not all. They are a starting point for your compare and contrast essay.
HINDUISM One of the world’s oldest religions. Not just a religion; also a culture in itself.
Hinduism Originated more than 3000 year ago. Do not have 1 specific founder. 3 rd most practiced religion in the world with about 1 billion followers (1.4 million in US) Originated in India Belief in a supreme spirit Oldest in the world but developed over the centuries from many different texts. There is no hierarchy like Catholic
Hinduism Grew out the Aryan culture, the Vedas, and the work of Brahman priests Everyone has a moral duty: dharma Good actions are rewarded and bad ones punished: karma People are reincarnated and either move up or down on the caste system based on their karma Ultimate goal is to be reunited with the universal spirit after living as Brahman priest Religions
Hinduism The religion of Hinduism developed and evolved over a long time in India, giving rise to a variety of beliefs and practices and to other religions, including Buddhism. One of the oldest religions of humanity, founded in 1500 BCE or earlier. It is the 3 rd largest religion in the world. No particular founder 2500 – 250 BC Brahman
Background The term Hindu originates from the Sindhu, the ancient name for the Indus river. Classical language=Sanskrit. It is the language for Hinduism and is one of India’s 22 official languages (less than 50000 fluent) The faiths traditions and beliefs developed from the ancient Vedic tradition.
MAJOR TENETS OF HINDUISM Three main ideas are important in understanding the Hindu religion and the caste system Reincarnation Karma Dharma
REINCARNATION Every living thing has a soul. When a living thing dies, its soul moves into another living creature. Souls are reborn in a newly created life.
What is reincarnation according to the Hindus? It is rebirth of the soul in various forms. After the body dies, the soul may be reborn as anything from a god to a flower to a snake. Each form in only temporary.
KARMA Every action brings about certain results. There is no escaping the consequences of one’s actions. Good behavior is rewarded when the soul is reborn into a higher ranking living creature.
Karma The cycle of reincarnation continues until one reaches moksha. The cycle is governed by the law of karma. Karma is derived from the Sanskrit word: ‘to do”. The law of karma states that every deed- mental or physical-in this life affects a person’s fate in a future life. Your present situation is the result of your deeds in a past existence, says karmic law.
Hinduism– Beliefs How does a Hindu achieve moksha? Karma: every deed in a person’s life affects a person’s fate in a future life Reincarnation: rebirth of the soul Karma determines where you are reincarnated in the caste system Good Karma = higher in caste system Bad Karma = lower in caste system
DHARMA A set of rules that must be followed by all living things if they wish to work their way up the ladder of reincarnation. Each person’s dharma is different.
Hinduism– Beliefs How does a Hindu achieve moksha? Dharma: duties and obligations of your caste Doing your dharma will get you good karma
Hinduism– Beliefs Atman: the essential self Also, part of the Brahman Nonviolence Every living thing has an atman
Unity of all Life---Atman “The essential self or the vital essence in human is the same as that in an ant, the same as that in a gnat, the same as that in an elephant…indeed the same as that in the whole universe.”
Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 32 Ahimsa Seeing all life as sacred – a part of a “oneness” Results in the life principle of non- violence Supports the idea of being in harmony with nature A principle also found in Jainism and Buddhism
Moksha: freeing your atman/soul from your body The ultimate goal of all Hindus Your atman is reunited with the Brahman and you will have true peace. Hinduism– Beliefs Brahman
How does a Hindu achieve moksha? Caste system: strict social classes Handed down from the Aryan varna A Hindu must reach the top of the caste system in order to achieve moksha How do you get to the top? Hinduism– Beliefs Priests, “brahman” Traders, merchants Commoners, peasants Untouchables
CASTE SYSTEM 1) Brahmans, the priestly and learned class; 2) Kshatriyas, the warriors and rulers; 3) Vaisyas, farmers and merchants; 4) Sudras, peasants and laborers. 5) Panchamas, “the untouchables” who performed the most menial tasks.
The Varna (Caste System) 4 different castes– Never change within a lifetime. 1. Brahmin- priests and educated people 2. Kshatria- Rulers and Aristocrats 3. Vaisia- Landlords and Businessmen 4. Sundra- Peasants and working class Untouchables (literally cannot be touched by the other 4 castes)- Cleaning, sewage, etc.
Jat The Varna is broken down further into various Jat or Jati. Must eat according to Caste Must work according to Caste Must marry within the Caste
Hinduism– Beliefs Brahman: the single supreme force of the universe Only a few people can fully understand it Many gods are worshiped as part of the Brahman Nameless, formless, unlimited Names and faces given to certain aspects of the Brahman: Brahma, creator Vishnu, protector Shiva, destroyer
What do Hindus believe? 1. Brahman -the eternal being - created and preserves the world. Everything in the world is an aspect of Brahman. 2. Atman - the soul – each person has one that is an aspect of Brahman. Can’t ever be destroyed. 3. Devas – manifestations of Brahman that are active in the world and who help to maintain order. 3 of the most common—Brahma, Vishnu, & Siva 4. Reincarnation – being reborn into this world lifetime after lifetime (Samsara) 5. Karma – the sum effect of a person’s actions, good and bad, which helps shape future experiences 6. Moksha - goal of human existence, escape from the cycle of reincarnation to join with the Brahman. 7. Dharma – set of spiritual duties and obligations that must be fulfilled to achieve moksha. 2500 – 250 BC
Hinduism Sacred texts 1. Vedas – scriptures/hymns that explain Hindu teachings 2. Upanishads Help explain the ideas of the Vedas Vedas
Vedas and Roots of Hinduism Unlike many religions, Hinduism bases its principles on a collection of teachings compiled over time. Earliest collection are the Vedas Scriptures. Other notable scriptures are the Bhagavad-Gita, the Brahma Sutras, and the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata
What are the Sacred Texts? Oldest, most authoritative: 1. Four Vedas (“truth”) – sacred hymns of praise Contain knowledge revealed by Brahman 2. Upanishads – philosophical reflections on the Vedas Also revealed to, not written by, people the Great Indian Epics (composed by sages) Ramayana Mahabharata (includes Bhagavad- Gita) Both tell stories that reflect on what it means to live according to Vedic teachings 2500 – 250 BC
Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 43 THREE BASIC PRACTICES Puja or worship – corporate worship not required – largely individual practices Cremation of the dead Regulations of the caste system
What are the religious practices of Hinduism? Vary greatly because worship can take place anywhere—usually a temple or in the home. Spiritual leaders are called gurus or sages. Yoga-integrated physical and mental exercises. They teach people to focus their minds and bodies which will aid their meditation in order to attain moksha Pilgrimage to Ganges (thought it flows through 2 devas so its water is holy. Bathing in it will purify them and remove bad karma. Ultimate goal of life – to release Atman and reunite with the divine, becoming as one with Brahman (Moksha) 2500 – 250 BC
Hindu and Diet Many Hindus are vegetarian Since the divine soul flows through all beings, many devout Hindus support non-violence. Some will not eat meat on important days If meat is eaten, usually fish or chicken Cows are Venerated (highly respected) at it is illegal to slaughter a cow in most Indian states Because they provided milk and helped plow fields. They were caretakers
Who do Hindus worship? – 3 Most Important Devas Brahma, the creator 2500 – 250 BC Siva, the Destroyer Vishnu, the Preserver
The Three Main Gods of Hinduism Brahma: the creator Vishnu: the preserver Shiva: the destroyer Different sects worship different gods and their families. Hindus believe in the unity of all life and every person has an essential self or atman: part of the universal soul.
Brahma: the creator
Vishnu: the preserver
Shiva: the destroyer
All these deities are but Aspects of the impersonal Brahman All these deities are but Aspects of the impersonal Brahman
Temples Originally did not have temples, idols or icons. There are temples that exist today that are usually dedicated to one deity. Temples are often sites of pilgrimages.
Festivals Diwali, also known as the festival of lights. Ganesh Chaturthi, the festival celebrating Lord Ganesha. Maha Shivaratri, The night of Lord Shiva when he drank Halahala to save gods and demons from its effect. Ramanavami, celebrates the birthday of Lord Ram Holi, The spring festival of colors and light.
Symbols Aum- (Om) is the most sacred symbol of Hinduism. Most mantras begin with this sound. It represents Brahman (the universal spirit) Swastika- Represents the 4 Vedas
Hinduism – Map! Hinduism in 1500 C.E.Hinduism Today Hinduism located in India and SE Asia Then and Now AUM! AUM!
Four Noble Truths Noble Eight-fold Path Religions
Buddhism Buddhism, which teaches people that they can escape the suffering of the world through the Buddhist teachings, developed in Northeast India in 520 BCE and spread to other parts of Asia 4 th largest religion in the world 2500 – 250 BC
BUDDHISM Focuses on knowledge, especially self-knowledge Elimination of worldly desires, determination not to hurt or kill people or animals Founded by: Siddhartha Gautama (563 - 483 B.C.)
Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, founder He was a reformer who tried to limit the power of the brahman, or priest, caste in India He was a reformer who tried to limit the power of the brahman, or priest, caste in India
Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 BCE) Unlike Hinduism, Buddhism can be traced to one single founder, Siddhartha Gautama Prince of a small kingdom; he lived a sheltered life and sought the answer to ending suffering After years of meditation and searching, he sat under a Bodhi tree where he became Enlightened He transformed into the Buddha-the Enlightened One. 2500 – 250 BC
Siddhartha Gautama Born in 560 BCE into wealth One day journeyed beyond walls and saw suffering. He left his wife and family and searched out the cause of suffering. After six years of searching he found enlightenment while sitting under a sacred tree.
Was Buddha a Hindu? Yes: he thought of himself as a Hindu and believed in reincarnation and karma. He did deny the existence of any gods and thought that priests were unnecessary. People had to seek nirvana on their own.
Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff 65 BUDDHIS M Objected to harsher features of Hinduism such as the caste system Focuses on knowledge, especially self-knowledge Enlightenment ends the cycle of reincarnation Elimination of worldly desires, determination not to hurt or kill people or animals
What is the fundamental cause of all suffering? Desire! Therefore, extinguish the self, don’t obsess about oneself. Give up all materials and possessions of the world. 2500 – 250 BC The Teachings of Buddhism
The Four Noble Truths 1. Suffering is universal 2. The cause of suffering is want/desire 3. The only way to end suffering is to end desire Nirvana: condition of wanting nothingNirvana: condition of wanting nothing 4. The way to achieve nirvana is to follow the Eightfold Path Compassion for all creatures, kindness, truthfulness, meditationCompassion for all creatures, kindness, truthfulness, meditation Buddhism
FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS Sorrow and suffering are part of all life. People suffer because they desire things they cannot have. The way to escape suffering is to end desire. To end desire, follow the “middle path.”
Eightfold Path Right Understanding Right Speech Right Livelihood Right Concentration Right Mindfulness Right Effort Right Action Right Intention 2500 – 250 BC
EIGHTFOLD PATH TO THE MIDDLE WAY Right understanding Right purpose Right speech Right conduct Right means of earning a living Right effort Right awareness Right meditation
Eightfold Path Nirvana Nirvana is a state of perfect peace in which the soul would be free from suffering forever. It would escape from the cycle of rebirth. If nirvana is not achieved, then the soul would be reborn to live through the cycle of suffering again. Spiritual leaders are called monks or lamas. Worship takes place in a temple or meditation hall. 2500 – 250 BC
Ultimate goal of Buddhism: End suffering by achieving nirvana. End suffering by achieving nirvana. Once you are in the condition of wanting nothing, you will be Enlightened, or understand the universe and cause of human suffering Once you are in the condition of wanting nothing, you will be Enlightened, or understand the universe and cause of human suffering Buddhism– Beliefs
Could you do it? No drinking or mind-altering substances. No eating animals (vegetarian) No violence. No doing harm to any living creature, verbally or physically. Constant meditation Giving up material possessions
Sacred Texts Pali Canon Dhammapada Both record the words of the Buddha
Spread of Buddhism People began carrying the message of Buddhism throughout Asia Monasteries and convents provided a place where people could devote themselves to the Eightfold Path. Two sects developed Theravada– Did not worship anyone Mahayana– Worshiped Buddha and other enlightened ones as god
Two main Buddhists sects have emerged 1. Theravada: monastic life to reach nirvana, Buddha is a great teacher 2. Mahayana: worship Buddha as a god, more popular Buddhism
Types of Buddhism Therevada Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism 2500 – 250 BC
Theravada Buddhism The oldest school of Buddhism. Found in southern Asia. The monastic life is the best way to achieve nirvana. Focus on wisdom and meditation. Goal is to become a “Buddha,” or “Enlightened One.” Over 100,000,000 followers today. 2500 – 250 BC
Mahayana Buddhism Founded in northern Asia (China, Japan). Buddhism “for the masses.” One doesn’t need to be a monk or nun to reach nirvana; anyone can do it with some help. Seek guidance from Boddhisatvas, wise beings, people who have found enlightenment but have stayed on earth to help others find their way. Goal: Not just individual escape from the wheel, but the salvation of all humanity through self-sacrifice of those who are already enlightened.d few. 2500 – 250 BC
Tibetan Buddhism Developed in Tibet in the 7c CE. A mix of Theravada and Mahayana. Boddhisatvas include Lamas, like the Dalai Lama. 2500 – 250 BC
Buddhism – Map! Buddhism in 1500 C.E.Buddhism Today Buddhism located in Southeast and East Asia (China) Then and Now
Similarities with Hinduism 1. Belief in reincarnation 2. Belief in nonviolence Differences with Hinduism 1. Buddhists deny the existence of gods 2. Priests are not necessary, you must seek nirvana on your own 3. Buddhists reject the caste system Buddhism– Beliefs
Buddhism Vs. Hinduism Siddhartha believed himself to be a Hindu Nevertheless Rejected the caste system God did not exist Priest were not necessary– Individual journey Similarities Reincarnation Karma Dharma Nirvana (Moksha) self-enlightenment
85 THE ORIGINS OF JAINISM Vardhamana (“He who augments”): 1. Born c. 599 BCE in Patna, city on the Ganges River in northeastern India, to kşatriya family 2. Possibly elder contemporary of the Buddha Şakyamuni 3. Became renunciant at age 30 4. After 13 years of severe asceticism, achieved kevala- jñana (“unique knowledge,” omniscience) 5. Hailed as Jina (“victor”) and Mahāvīra (“Great Hero”) 6. Attracted disciples, whom he accepted from both genders and all classes 7. Starved himself to death at 72 in order to obtain mokşa
Jainism Based on Hinduism 3 Jewels– Right Faith, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct Mahivira was the founder Emphasized Ahimsa (non-violence) Strict vegetarians Swept ground to avoid killing Reincarnation Objective– Rid jiva (soul) of all Kharma Gods do not help (religion of self-help)
87 THE TEACHINGS OF THE MAHĀVĪRA All matter (animal, vegetable, mineral) is alive (hylozoism) The cosmos proceeds in a series of ascending and declining phases, without creation or intervention by deities The self (jīva): 1. Completely individual 2. Eternal 3. Encumbered by karma, thus preventing its ascent to realms of bliss after death (mokşa) Path to mokşa: 1. Ahimsā (nonviolence) – to purify one’s karma for better rebirth 2. Tapas (“heat,” asceticism) – to eliminate karmic encumbrances
Jainism Continued 5 Mahavratas Non Violence Non-Attachment Sexual Restraint Not Lying Not Stealing Agamas– Sacred texts (had to be memorized due to non- attachment) 2 Sects-- the Digambara (meaning "sky clad") sect and the Svetambara (meaning "white clad") sect Nuns and Monks are spiritual leaders
89 JAINA ETHICS Primary ethical obligation for all Jainas (lay or monastic): ahimsā Commitment to nonviolence in one’s work, as well as social roots of Jaina movement, account for predominance of Jainas in mercantile profession Laypersons take 5 vows: 1. To avoid violence 2. To avoid lying 3. To avoid theft 4. To avoid illicit sex 5. To avoid material attachments Monastics follow stricter code, involving meditation, fasting, voluntary poverty, etc.
90 JAINA RITUAL LIFE In theory, mokşa attainable only through conscientious individual effort, without need for deities, priests, or sacrifices In practice, many aspects of Hindu tradition are assimilated to Jaina spirituality: 1. Veneration of images, including those of explicitly Hindu deities 2. Construction of temples 3. Conceptualization of Brahman as totality of liberated jivas 4. Prayer to Tirthankaras Theism and devotionalism rationalized as participation in the karmic merit (punya) of the Tirthankaras
Historical Origins Sikhism 22 million Sikhs worldwide 20 million Sikhs in India INDIA CHINA INDIA AFGHANISTAN PAKISTAN IRAN
Guru Nanak Founded Sikhism Born in 1469 10 Gurus provided spiritual guidance Guru Nanak founded Sikhism based on equality and justice for all
Sikhism 1500 CE Nanak was the founder One God- Waheguru Teachings of 10 Sikh gurus Guru Granth Sahib (the holy scripture) Punjab – almost exclusively Attention on god rather than self Karma Become one with god by serving others
Beliefs of the Sikhs One god/creator All humans created equal Goal is to be one with god Human life a precious blessing All carry a spark of divine light: consequently no race, pigmentation, gender, is intrinsically superior to others Defenders of social and spiritual justice, Truth, fearless,non-hateful spirit are important in attaining salvation
Beliefs of the Sikhs Freedom of speech, religion Equal rights in all walks of life for all persons of all faiths and external looks Note that many countries still ask require religion, race, or nationality on employment applications Elsewhere, people discriminate based on looks Compensation based on merit rather than outward differences Justice and liberty for all Origin of universe is from one light source Life is by god’s evolution There are many planets, solar systems and galaxies
Values & Practices Seva: Daily selfless service to humanity Vand Chakna: sharing with others Langar: Community Kitchen, An expression of service to community Kirat Kamaiyee: Honest Labor Honest earnings by hard work Do not become burden on the society Daily Prayers & Meditation No passive mediation Maintain channel of knowledge by actively engaging in the society. Prevent stagnation of social and intellectual skills Introspection connect now, don’t wait for later Bhai Kanyia pioneer of the Red Cross & humanitarian aide organizations
Respect for All Protectors of social and spiritual justice for ALL Believers of non-violence Equality of all religions Give relevance to god rather than religion Believers of interfaith diversity Equality of persons Social, spiritual, political rights for all women
Sikhism 3 foci Keep god in mind at all times Earn an honest living Give help to others 5 Vices Lust Covetousness and greed Attachment to things of this world Anger Pride
Every man and woman who belongs to the Khalsa must wear five symbols which show that they are Sikhs. They are usually called the Five K’s because in Punjabi their names all begin with the letter ‘K’. The Five K’s
(1) Kesh Kesh is hair. Sikhs promise not to cut their hair but let it grow as a symbol of their faith. Because during their lifetimes it will get very long they wear turbans to keep it tidy. They believe that this demonstrates their obedience to God. A Sikh wearing a Turban
(2) Kangha The Kangha is a small wooden comb. It keeps the hair fixed in place, and is a symbol of cleanliness. Combing their hair reminds Sikhs that their lives should be tidy and organised. Take note year 6! The Kangha
(3) The Kara The kara is a steel bangle worn on the arm. It is a closed circle with no beginning and no end...as with God there is no beginning and no end. It is a reminder to behave well, keep faith and restrain from wrong doing. Wearing it will remind a Sikh of his duties. The Kara
The Last two are a reminder that Sikhs are warriors and always fight for what is right! The last two K’s are: 1. The Kachera 2. The Kirpan
(4) The Kachera These are short trousers worn as underwear. They were more practical than the long, loose clothes most people in India wore at the time of Guru Gobind Singh. The Guru said they were a symbol that Sikhs were leaving old ideas behind, following new better ones. The Kachera
(5) The Kirpan The warriors sword. These days a very tiny one is worn as a symbol of dignity and self respect. It demonstrates power and reminds Sikhs that they must fight a spiritual battle, defend the weak and oppressed, and uphold the truth. The Kirpan
Sikh Turbans Mideast headcoverings different 99% of people with turbans in US are Sikhs, not Muslims or Hindus Covers long, uncut hair Approx. 15 feet of cloth wrapped neatly around the head every time it is put on Symbolizes discipline, integrity, humility, and spirituality Religious requirement - must be worn at all times in public
Importance of Identity Sikhs feel severely humiliated if asked to remove their turban in public, as this breaks a sacred covenant with god and exposes an intimate part of the body It is very insulting and disrespectful to a Sikh to remove his or her turban Turbans are a mandatory part of Sikh faith A turban is not a hat. It cannot be casually taken on and off. It must be carefully retied each time it is removed Treat the turban with respect
Golden Temple, Amritsar Harmandir Sahib—1588 Fifth Guru Sentiment of Sikhs Symbol of strength & endurance Survived tyrannical raids Golden Temple