Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 States of Consciousness To insert your company logo on this slide From the Insert Menu Select “Picture” Locate your logo file Click OK To resize."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 7 States of Consciousness To insert your company logo on this slide From the Insert Menu Select “Picture” Locate your logo file Click OK To resize the logo Click anywhere inside the logo. The boxes that appear outside the logo are known as “resize handles.” Use these to resize the object. If you hold down the shift key before using the resize handles, you will maintain the proportions of the object you wish to resize.
Consciousness Consciousness: –Our awareness of ourselves and our environment
Consciousness Consciousness versus Unconsciousness –Consciousness: Processing takes place in sequence It’s slow with limited capacity Good at solving new problems
Consciousness Consciousness versus Unconsciousness –Unconsciousness Unconscious processing occurs simultaneously Unconscious processing is faster than conscious processing
Biological Rhythms –Types of Biological Rhythms Twenty-four-hour cycles (most humans have a 24 hour sleep/wake cycle)
Biological Rhythms –Types of Biological Rhythms Ninety-minute cycles (We have about a 90 minute sleep cycle)
The Rhythm of Sleep Circadian Rhythm (about 24 hours) –Circa = about –Diem = day
The Rhythm of Sleep Owls versus Larks -Evening-energized -Most university students -Performance improves across the day -Morning-loving -Most older adults -Performance declines as the day goes on With age we tend to shift from being an owl to being a lark
The Rhythm of Sleep –About every 90 minutes we pass through a cycle of 5 distinct sleep stages We spend about half the night in Stage 2 sleep
The Rhythm of Sleep –REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep Vivid Dreams often occur during REM sleep Also known as paradoxical sleep because our bodies are internally aroused and externally calm
The Rhythm of Sleep Alpha waves versus Delta waves - slow waves of your relaxed, awake state - large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep (stage 3 and 4) Awake, relaxed: alpha waves
Why Do We Sleep? Sleep has many benefits –Strengthens memory –Increases concentration –Boosts mood –Moderates hunger and obesity –Boosts our immune system –Lessens the risks of fatal accidents
Why Do We Sleep? 80% of students are sleep deprived. Are you getting enough sleep?
Why Do We Sleep? An interesting study has shown that staying awake for 24 hours leads to a reduced hand-to-eye coordination comparable to having a blood alcohol content of 0.1.
Why Do We Sleep? Four theories of why we sleep 1. Sleep protects us from harm 2. Sleep restores and repairs our brain 3. Sleep restores and rebuilds our fading memories of the day 4. Sleep plays a role in the growth process
Sleep Disorders Insomnia: A problem falling asleep or a problem staying asleep Alcohol and sleep aids are NOT effective ways to treat insomnia.
Sleep Disorders Effective Ways to Treat Insomnia –Relax before bedtime –Drink a glass of white milk before bed –Avoid caffeine –Maintain a regular sleep/wake cycle –Exercise regularly (but not late at night) –Don’t obsess over not sleeping –Hide the clock
Sleep Disorders Narcolepsy: periodic, overwhelming sleepiness Babies born in September have a 37% less than average risk for narcolepsy. Babies born in March have a 45% more than average risk for narcolepsy.
Sleep Disorders Sleep Apnea: intermittent termination of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings. Overweight males are at a higher risk for sleep apnea
Sleep Disorders Night Terrors: High arousal and an appearance of being terrified. Most common in young children Is NOT the same as a nightmare Occurs during the first few hours of Stage 4 sleep NOT during REM sleep May be accompanied by sleepwalking
Dreams Dream: a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind –Blind people dream using their nonvisual senses –We spend about 6 years of our lives dreaming –8 out of 10 dreams involve negative emotions
Dreams Two types of dream content (according to Freud) 1. Manifest: the story line of the dream 2. Latent: the hidden meaning of the dream
Dreams Why Do We Dream? –To satisfy our own wishes –To file away memories –To develop and preserve neural pathways –To make sense of neural static –To reflect cognitive development
Dreams REM rebound: the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (we need REM sleep) http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=4MT8ekBGyM4
Hypnosis Facts and Falsehoods –Anyone who is suggestible can by hypnotized –Hypnosis can NOT enhance recall of forgotten events –Hypnotized people are no more likely to behave dangerously than their control group counterparts –Post hypnotic suggestions CAN help alleviate headaches, asthma, & stress-related skin disorders –Hypnosis CAN relieve pain
Drugs and Consciousness Dependence and Addiction –Tolerance: the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug. It is because of building a tolerance to a drug that users need to take increasingly larger doses in order to experience the drug’s effect.
Drugs and Consciousness Dependence and Addiction –Physical Dependence: a physiological need for a drug marked by withdrawal symptoms physical pain intense cravings –Psychological Dependence: (addiction) a psychological need to use a drug relieves negative emotions
Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drugs: chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood.
Drugs and Consciousness Three Categories of Psychoactive Drugs 1.Depressants 2.Stimulants 3.Hallucinogens
Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drugs –Depressants : calm neural activity and slow body functions –Types Alcohol Barbiturates (tranquilizers) Opiates (morphine, heroin)
Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drugs –Stimulants: temporarily excite neural activity and arouse body functions –Types Caffeine Nicotine Amphetamines Methamphetamine Cocaine Ecstasy People may use these substances to help stay awake, lose weight, boost mood, or improve athletic performance
Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drugs –Hallucinogens: drugs that distort the way you perceive reality. They can cause you to see, feel and hear things that don't exist, making it hard to communicate or think clearly. They can also cause rapid, intense emotional mood swings. –Types Marijuana LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) Ecstasy (both a stimulant and mild hallucinogen)
Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drugs All psychoactive drugs trigger negative aftereffects that offset their immediate positive effects. The more one uses psychoactive drugs, the stronger the opposing emotions grow