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TRANSFER OF LEARNING ITE-695. Transfer of Training Why Important n U.S. Spends billions on human resource development n An estimated 80% of HRD not fully.

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Presentation on theme: "TRANSFER OF LEARNING ITE-695. Transfer of Training Why Important n U.S. Spends billions on human resource development n An estimated 80% of HRD not fully."— Presentation transcript:

1 TRANSFER OF LEARNING ITE-695

2 Transfer of Training Why Important n U.S. Spends billions on human resource development n An estimated 80% of HRD not fully applied thereby wasted n Improving transfer of training must become HRD’s top priority

3 Nature Of Learning n Learning inferred from before/after behavior comparison n Learning starts with an instigation of behavior--a stimulus acting on an organism to bring about a response n Training is the management of learning

4 Learning Process Five varieties of outcomes –Intellectual skill –Cognitive strategy –Verbal Information –Motor skill –Attitude

5 Principles Of Learning n Reinforcement-Reward n Knowledge of Results-Feedback n Motivation-Desire to learn n Distribution of Practice-Scheduling training sessions over time n Whole versus Part Learning-complexity and organization level dependant n Transfer of Learning-Psychological fidelity

6 Learning Curves n Job-related learning is depicted with learning curves showing cumulative changes in criteria that occur over time n The form shape and length of learning curves vary n The relative degree of improvement in learning is greater for more difficult jobs

7 Principles of Transfer n Incremental steps n Defined outcomes n Learner engaged n Reinforcement n Cue Learner n Shape Response

8 Barriers To Transfer n Executive Barriers n Trainer Barriers n Trainee Barriers

9 Executive Barriers 1. Lack of Involvement = 71% 2. Top Centered = 51% 3. Lack of Participation = 21% 4. Unrealistic Expectations = 17%

10 Trainer Barriers 1. Lack of Reinforcement 2. Work Interference 3. Non-Supportive Culture 4. Impractical Programs 5. Irrelevant Training 6. Discomfort with Change 7. Trainer Support 8. Poorly Designed Material 9. Peer Pressure to Resist Change

11 Trainee Barriers 1. Lack of Reinforcement on the job 2. Impractical Training 3. Lack of support from Trainer 4. Poorly Designed Training 5. Peer pressure to resist 6. Non-supportive Culture

12 Timing Of Barriers To Transfer Dominant Timing Barrier Before DuringAfter __________________________________ 1 Lack of reinforcement on the job 2 1 Interference from immediate (work) environment Non supportive organizational culture 1 Trainees’ perception of impractical training 1 Trainees’ perception of irrelevant training content Trainees’ discomfort with change and effort needed 1 Separation from support of the trainer 1 Trainees’ perception of poorly designed/delivered trn’g 2 1 Pressure from peers to resist change Key: 1 = primary time of impact; 2 = secondary time of impact

13 Source Of Barriers To Transfer Dominant Sources Barrier Trainee Trainer Mgr Organ_______________________________________________ Lack of reinforcement on the job 2 1 Interference from immediate (work) environment 1 Non supportive organizational culture Trainees’ perception of impractical training Trainees’ perception of irrelevant training content 1 2 Trainees’ discomfort with change and effort needed Separation from support of the trainer Trainees’ perception of poorly designed/delivered trn’g 2 1 Pressure from peers to resist change Key 1 = primary responsibility ; 2 = secondary responsibility

14 Managing Transfer of Training n Strategic Planning- an essential process n HRD-a strategic resource within the process n The trainer as manager of transfer

15 Transfer Manager Roles n Manager of Transfer of Training –Advocates for transfer to organization –Initiates transfer partnerships with managers and trainees –Manages implementation of transfer strategies n Strategic Resource –Links HRD efforts to organization strategic goals –Shares performance improvement decisions with management n Expert HRD Resource –Demonstrates expertise in HRD technologies and practices –Demonstrates expertise in consulting skills supporting organizational change (Broad & Newstrom, 1992)

16 Training Design Overview n Needs and goals assessment n Use a view of Principles of Learning n Use a view of the Principles of transfer n Design strategies to achieve a high level of transfer of training n Engage managers, trainers, and trainees in a partnership sharing the supportive roles n Evaluate before, during, and after training effects

17 Saturn Case Study Application of Principles of Transfer

18 Broad And Newstrom’s Transfer Matrix Before During After _____________________________________ Manager Trainer Trainee

19 Saturn Transfer-of-Training Model InputsProcessesOutputs Saturn Goal: To create, maintain, and improve organizational effectiveness By meeting the growth and development needs of team members, teams, and Saturn Through anticipation, prevention, and remedy of learning and motivational deficiencies Effective training programs Transfer-of-Training Partnership Part I: Transfer Principles Matrix Part II: Role- Specific Transfer Matrix Part III: Mentoring Principles Matrix Barriers 1. Lack of reinforcement 2. Interference from work environment 3. Non supportive culture 4. Impractical, irrelevant training 5. Poor planning 6. Poor design and development 7. Poor delivery 8. Lack of continual training improvement Organizational effectiveness need met Short-term and long- term business objectives met Saturn mission fulfilled Team need met Individual need met New knowledge and skill applied Team member willing and able

20 Saturn Role-specific Transfer Matrix Trainer B efore During After_______

21 Saturn Role-specific Matrix Trainee

22 References: Broad, M.L. & Newstrom, J.W. (1992). Transfer of training. Indianapolis, IN: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. McCormick, E.J. & Ilgan, D.R. (1942/1980). Industrial psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Phillips, J.J., & Broad, M.L. (1997). Transferring learning to the workplace. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development.


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