Presentation on theme: "Goal 7 Progressive Era 1890-1917 (Gilded Age – U.S. entry into WWI)"— Presentation transcript:
Goal 7 Progressive Era 1890-1917 (Gilded Age – U.S. entry into WWI)
Progressive Movement Reasons why we need change…. (1) unsafe conditions at factories (2) questioned the dominant role of corporations (monopolies/trusts) (3) Corrupt political practices (political machines)
Muckrakers Frank Norris – The Octopus - Railroads Lincoln Steffens – The Shame of the Cities – corrupt election practices Ida M. Tarbell – History of the Standard Oil Company -outrageous business practices of Rockefeller’s Oil company Upton Sinclair – The Jungle - harsh conditions in a meat packing industry in Chicago years later to pass the Meat Inspection Act
Muckrakers Jacob Riis – How the Other Half Lives -tenement Jane Addams – Hull House – help to immigrants
Prohibition Prohibition- Banning the production, sale, and transportation of alcohol! 18 th Amendment * Ratified in 1919 and Repealed in 1933 by the 21 st Amendment (alcohol Is legal; taxed!)
WCTU –Women’s Christian Temperance Union (Prohibition crusaders) * Cary Nation * Bible and Hatchet
Teddy Roosevelt Anthracite Coal Mine Strike 150,000 miners walked off their jobs Wanted higher pay Shorter work hours Unions Roosevelt called both sides to White House and threatened to send in troops Roosevelt = hero (people had coal and he didn’t side with business)
Teddy Roosevelt Wanted to regulate big business United States v. EC Knight Co. - stated that certain monopolies could not be broken up Felt that monopolies were harmful Brought suit against the Northern Securities Company and its railroad monopoly in Pacific Northwest saying that it violated the Sherman Antitrust Act Northern Securities v. US (1904)- broken up monopoly Roosevelt = “Trust-Buster”
1908 Presidential Election William Howard Taft – Roosevelt’s Secretary of War– Taft wins the 1908 election! (Roosevelt decides NOT to run) Taft as President BIG PROBLEM - Taft DID NOT expand Roosevelt’s Progressive agenda
William Howard Taft Mann-Elkins Act (1910) - This act expanded the power of the Interstate Commerce Commission in regulating railroads to regulating telephone and telegraph rates. American Tobacco v. US - Dukes Tobacco established an illegal monopoly under the Sherman Antitrust Act and ordered that the company be broken up.
Split of the Republican Party Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act Initially intended to lower tariffs and help consumers Modified by Congress that it actually raised tariffs Outraged Progressives, including Teddy Roosevelt. Republican Party split in 1912 RepublicanBull Moose Taft Conservative Progressive Teddy Roosevelt Wanted improved working conditions, more government regulation of business, women's suffrage, and an end to child labor. In addition, the Progressives also wanted the direct election of public officials by the people.
1912 Presidential Election Taft (incumbent) ( Republican /Conservatism ) Vs. Roosevelt ( Bull-Moose/Progressive ) Vs. Eugene V. Debs ( Socialist ) Vs. Woodrow Wilson ( Democrat / New Freedom) Winner – because the Republican Party Split
WOODROW WILSON WINS Wilson WINS the 1912 election & established his ************NEW FREEDOM************** Fighting for more regulation and more federal government in economic affairs… WILSON AS PRESIDENT: 1. Clayton Anti-Trust Act 2. Federal Reserve System
Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) Purpose: to strengthen the Sherman Anti- Trust Act (1) Trusts cannot exist – eliminates competition (2) Strikes, peaceful boycotts and unions are LEGAL! (3) Injunction was ILLEGAL (unless the strikes caused harm or damage)
Federal Reserve Commission / Act (1913) Federal Reserve System – divided the nation into 12 zones, central bank in each Banker’s Bank Could create emergency $ (loans / bonds) / transfer $ to banks in trouble! (saving the banks from foreclosure)
Amendments 16th Amendment (1913)- Congress could collect taxes 17th Amendment (1913)- US senators would be elected directly by the people of a state, rather than by state legislatures 18th Amendment (1919)- Prohibition of alcohol (21 st amendment repealed this) 19th Amendment (1920)- Women can vote
Women’s Fight for Suffrage (voting) Susan B. Anthony: Fought for a constitutional amendment for “WOMEN”S SUFFRAGE” Carrie Chapman Catt Leader of the National Women’s Suffrage Association 1917 – wins women’s suffrage 1918 – introduced to Congress 1920 – ratification of the 19 th Amendment 19 th Amendment – Women’s suffrage *(voting)
Susan B. Anthony & Carrie Chapman Catt Women that fought for Women’s Suffrage
Reform at the State Level Robert M. La Follette “FIGHTING BOB” Wisconsin Governor = “The Wisconsin Idea” direct primary – people would vote for candidates (no more being hand picked by party bosses) merit system for state civil service instituted state regulations and taxes on railroads.
Ways to grant “PEOPLE” more control in politics at the “STATE Level” 1. Initiative – a bill by the people 2. Referendum – a vote on the bill by the people 3. Recall – take out leaders in office (aimed at corruption) 4. 17 th Amendment: Direct election of Senators (***** DIRECT PRIMARY*****) 5. Secret (Australian) ballot – vote secretly
Reforms in City Government City commission - Cities hired experts in different fields to run a single aspect of city government. sanitation commissioner = in charge of garbage and sewage removal City manager - hired rather than elected, and was answerable to a commission, or city council, elected by the people
Disenfranchisement of African Americans 15 th amendment: Male suffrage (African Americans can vote) Tactics of disenfranchisement (1) POLL TAX (2) LITERACY TEST (3) GRANDFATHER CLAUSE (4) VIOLENCE AND INTIMIDATION
Voting Restrictions (1) Poll Tax – pay an annual tax to vote (2) Literacy Test – a person had to prove they could read before they could vote
Voting Restrictions 3. Grandfather Clause – if your father or grandfather could vote before Jan. 1, 1867, YOU can vote! Beneficial if you can’t pay the poll tax or pass the literacy test Discrimination = Freed African Americans COULD NOT vote before Jan. 1, 186 (note: 15 th amend. Ratification = 1870)
De Facto vs. De Jure Segregation De Facto (in fact) – segregation that exists through “custom” and “practice” / what YOU feel and believe in / anger toward African American advancement! *Much harder to fight than de jure segregation!! De Jure (in law) PLESSY V. FERGUSON, 1896 “SEPARATE BUT EQUAL” Jim Crow
De Jure Segregation (by law) Plessey V. Ferguson (1896)
THE GREAT MIGRATION 1916 - 1930 1000s of African Americans would physically move from the South to the North to do two things (1) Escape racial discrimination / Jim Crow South (2) Look for employment Problem: Job scarcity and the SAME racial discrimination is in the NORTH too
Expanding Higher Education for African Americans Booker T. Washington Saw no problem with racisim Founder and leader of the Tuskegee Institute Economic freedom = political freedom Teaching, blue collar jobs, and agriculture Famous Speech “Atlanta Compromise Speech” "In all things that are purely social we (whites and blacks) can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress."
Expanding Higher Education for African Americans W.E. B. Dubois 1st black Ph.D. graduate from Harvard University Disagreed with Booker T. Washington – thought that Washington sold out trying to please white community Wanted blacks to pursue careers in white collar positions “NIAGRA MOVEMENT”- wanted African American progress “NAACP” (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Ida Wells-Barnett Advocate of civil rights Campaign against segregation on railway cars prior to the Plessy decision Fought against lynchings in the South Unwilling to stand at the back of women's suffrage parades simply because she was African-American She also helped W.E.B. Du Bois form both the Niagara Movement and the NAACP
MARCUS GARVEY “Back to Africa Movement” Created the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) – same goals as NAACP
NEW TECHNOLOGIES Wright Brothers First successful flight, Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, December 17, 1903 (120 feet, and 12 seconds)
Mass Culture George Eastman (Kodak Camera) Movie Camera The Great Train Robbery
Mass Culture Shopping centers Department stores Field’s Department Store Chain stores Mail order catalogs “Give the lady what she wants.” ______________ “We are the servants of the public.” - Marshall Fields -
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