Presentation on theme: "History of New York State A Brief Chronology Part 1."— Presentation transcript:
History of New York State A Brief Chronology Part 1
Source Chronology & Documentary Handbook of the State of New York. Ellen Lloyd Trover, State Editor William F. Swindler, Series Editor Oceana Publications Dobbs Ferry, New York 1978
1609 French explorer and geographer, Samuel Champlain, travels south from Canada an discovers lake which now bears his name. Henry Hudson, Dutch navigator, discovers the mouth of the river later named for him and claims that area for Netherlands.
1614 The Estates General of the United Netherlands created a trading syndicate with three year’s trading rights in the region named New Netherland. Hendrick Christiaensen, constructs a trading post at Fort Nassau on Castle’s Island near Albany.
1621 Dutch formalize the trading venture in the New World through the creation of the agency to be known as the Dutch West India Company. The agency was directed to “plant” settlements in the region.
1624 First permanent settlement, consisting of Dutch and French Protestant refugees, established Fort Orange near present day Albany. Cornelius Jacobsen May, as company director becomes, in effect, the states’ first governor.
1626 Peter Minuit, as third governor, made the renowned “purchase” of Manhattan Island from Native Americans for an assortment of trinkets worth approximately $24. Since Native Americans did not believe that land could be owned individually, they likely thought they were merely exchanging gifts.
1629 Patroon system established which gave large land grants to men of influence. They were encouraged to create large feudal plantations where families would settle and farm the tract. Feudalism -- the system of political organization prevailing in Europe from the 9th to about the 15th centuries having as its basis the relation of lord to vassal with all land held in fee and as chief characteristics homage, the service of tenants under arms and in court, wardship, and forfeiture. [Merriam-Webster On-Line Dictionary]
1630 Kiliaen van Rensselaer establishes community on the upper Hudson River. The community called Rensselaerswyck, now makes up metropolitan Albany. Lands were leased to tenants and equipment was supplied to establish farms, breweries, mills, and brick kilns. Fort Orange established as marketplace.
1632 Governor Wouter van Twiller begins expanding the Dutch claims in the Hudson valley. Van Twiller acquires land in Long Island, fortified the Connecticut River Valley and sent expeditions to the mouth of the Delaware River.
1636-1646 1636- Jacob van Curler purchases land on Long Island, settlers take up land along what will become Long Island Sound. 1638-Governor William Kieft alienates Native Americans by demanding payments, called tributes. 1641- Kieft forms “Council” of twelve men which becomes first representative council 1646- Community of Yonkers established.
1647 Peter Stuyvesant becomes last Dutch governor. He will hold office until 1664. Stuyvesant sets up a local council of nine representatives who immediately petition to Holland complaining of Stuyvesant’s autocratic rule.
1653-1661 1653- In response to complaints against Stuyvesant the Estates General establish a “burgher” form of government in New Amsterdam. 1654- First Jewish colonist arrives from Holland. More arrive from Brazil the following month. 1654- Dutch annex New Sweden. 1657- Religious freedom granted Quakers. 1659- Dutch Reformed Church established in Kingston, then called Esopus. 1661- Arent van Curler establishes Schenectady.
1664 In settlement of a long series of commercial wars with England, New Netherlands is annexed to English New World holdings. English fleet takes control of New Amsterdam and proclaims it the new province of New York. Grant is given to the Duke of York, who will later become King James II
1665 Colonel Richard Nicolls, first English governor establishes a legal code which keep most Dutch laws, but terminates the feudal Patroon system land holdings. Long Island made independent from the settlement of New York, called Yorkshire. New Jersey, originally part of Dutch colony and the Duke of York’s holdings is separated establishing a new colony. Claims to Connecticut Valley are dropped.
1668-1674 1668- Governor Francis Lovelace, 2 nd English governor, buys Staten Island from the Aquehonga tribe, a branch of the Raritan Nation. 1673- Dutch fleet recaptures New York. 1674- English regain New York via Treaty of Westminster. 1674- Long Island conspires with Connecticut to become independent from New York. 1674- English governor establishes provincial assembly to placate dissident Long Islanders.
1679-1683 1679- French establish Fort Niagara in an effort to influence the Iroquois Nation. 1683 [October] – First legislative assembly convened at Fort James [now the Battery]. Assembly drafts a charter which provides for religious liberties, jury trials and elective assemblies. First eight counties established.
1684-1690 1684- Five Indian nations recognize the supremacy of the English crown. 1688- French Protestant Huguenot refugees establish New Rochelle. 1688- Plans to create Dominion of New England threaten New York’s existence. 1690- French attack Schenectady. Part of King William’s war in Europe.
1710-1733 1710- Governor Hunter encourages 2,500 Palatinate Germans to settle in Hudson Valley. 1713- Treaty of Utrecht ends hostilities with France, ending Queen Anne’s War. 1715 - Hunter approves law making all residents of Dutch descent citizens of the colony. 1731- French establish fortress at Crown Point anticipating next conflict with England. 1733 - Gov. Wm Cosby arrests newspaper publisher Peter Zenger, charging him with libel.
1736 - 1736- Governor Cosby dies without a successor. 1736- Absence of colonial executive combined with conflicts within the assembly result in the emergence of a colonial legislature which had powers comparable to the House of Commons. 1743- George Clinton becomes governor. 1743- Anglo-French war emerging in Europe. 1746- Clinton appoints Indian Commissioner who goal is to keep them loyal to England.
1746-1765 1746- French build forts in the Ohio Valley. 1746 - Clinton treats the Iroquois Nation poorly causing them to shift loyalties to the French. 1754 - Seven Years War begins in Europe. 1755 – French build Fort Ticonderoga. 1755 – French and Indian war begins. 1764 – English Parliament taxes sugar. 1765 – Colonial representatives meet in New York to protest the Stamp Act.
1766 Widespread revolt of tenant farmers, led by Irish immigrant William Prendergast, broke out in protest against denial of political rights and practice of evictions at will from tenancies. Governor Moore called out regular troops to suppress the “Westchestermen,” but anti-rentism continued to be a political issue for many years.
1774 April - When news of the Boston Tea Party reaches New York, citizens have their own party dumping 18 boxes of tea into New York harbor. May – NY Committee of Correspondence calls for a Continental Congress to be held in New York. November – Committee of Sixty formed to protest against English rule replacing a committee which sought to ask for grievances to be addressed.
1775 April 20 – Colonial Assembly doesn’t send delegates to the Second Continental Congress. May 20 – Ethan Allen leads his “Green Mountain Boys to capture Fort Ticonderoga. First act of rebellion against England in New York state. November 13 – New York City occupied by the army led by Lord William Howe. How had defeated General Washington and the Continental army at the Battle of Long Island.
1777 April 20 – Convention at Kingston completed work and adopted first constitution of the new state of New York. July 30 – George Clinton becomes first governor. October 17 – Surrender of General John Burgoyne and his army at Saratoga. First major American victory which will encourage foreign nations to loan the Continental Congress money.
1778-1784 February 6, 1778 – New York ratifies the Articles of Confederation. October 25, 1781 – Last battle of Revolutionary War to take place in New York with victory at Johnstown over British soldiers, Indians & Loyalists. May 21, 1784 – At Governor Clinton’s urging, the legislature creates the University of the State of New York to support public education.
1787 New York appoints three delegates – Robert Yates, John Lansing, and Alexander Hamilton – to participate in a convention in Philadelphia “to strengthen the Articles of Confederation.” October 27 – Hamilton, realizing difficulty in winning New York’s ratification of the new constitution, publishes first installment of The Federalist.
1788- 1795 July 26, 1788 – New York ratifies the new Constitution of the United States in convention at Poughkeepsie, by 30-27 vote. April 30, 1789 – George Washington inaugurated first President of the United States at Federal Hall in New York City. 1790 – First census shows New York state’s population at 340,120. April 6, 1795 - John Jay resigns as U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice to be NY 2 nd governor.
1797-1807 1797 – State legislature meets in Albany, formally establishing the city as the state capital. 1800 – State population listed as 589,051. 1801 – State constitutional convention held, no proposals were passed. July 11, 1804 – Alexander Hamilton slain in duel with Aaron Burr across Hudson River in Weehawken, New Jersey 1807 – Fulton’s steamboat travels from New York City to Albany in 32 hours.
1810-1820 1810 – Population: 959,049. 1813 – Ogdensburg was raided and looted by British-Canadian forces in War of 1812. September 11, 1814 – Outnumbered American fleet defeat British flotilla on Lake Champlain. 1817 – DeWitt Clinton, mayor of New York City, becomes governor. July 4, 1817– Erie Canal construction begins at Rome. 1820 – Population: 1,372,812
1821- 1825 1821 – New state constitution drafted, featuring universal male sufferage. 1822 – Hobart & William Smith Colleges founded at Geneva. 1823 – Joseph Smith of Palmyra reports visions which leads to the Church of Latter Day Saints. 1824 – Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute founded at Troy. October 26, 1825 – Erie Canal completed. 1825 – DeWitt Clinton re-elected governor.
1828 - 1836 1828 – Martin Van Buren elected governor but resigns in less than 3 months to become President Andrew Jackson’s Secretary of State. 1829 – Fanny Wright & Robert Dale Owen start Working-Men’s Party, America’s first labor party. 1831 – First railroad runs from Albany to Schenectady. 1831– New York University founded. 1836 – Union Theological Seminary founded.
1839 - 1847 1839 – William H. Seward becomes governor. 1839 – Anti-rent disturbances resume in the Hudson Valley and adjacent counties. 1840 – Population 2,428,921. 1841 – Fordham University founded in the Bronx. First Catholic college in state. June 1, 1846 – Constitutional convention meets in Albany. 1846 – University of Buffalo founded. 1847 – John Humphrey Noyes founds the Oneida Community, a religious commune.
1848 - 1855 July 19, 1848 – First Women’s Rights convention meets at Seneca Falls; 300 attend. 1848 – Millard Fillmore elected Vice President. 1850 – University of Rochester founded. 1850 – Population: 3,097,394. 1851 – Several major railroads completed. Hudson River RR., Erie RR., Delaware RR., Lackawanna and Western RR. 1855 – Suspension bridge over the Niagara River completed.