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Embedding Discourse into the Classroom. Presenter Information We recommend that if your fee structure allows, assure that each participant has a copy.

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Presentation on theme: "Embedding Discourse into the Classroom. Presenter Information We recommend that if your fee structure allows, assure that each participant has a copy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Embedding Discourse into the Classroom

2 Presenter Information We recommend that if your fee structure allows, assure that each participant has a copy of the book. In order to maintain intellectual property rights and adhere to copyright requirements the presenter must own a copy of Academic Conversations Classroom Talk That Fosters Critical Thinking and Content Understandings by Jeff Zwiers and Marie Crawford

3 Learning Targets I can cite reasons for embedding discourse into my classroom. I can apply the why, what and how of discourse to my classroom. I can use protocols to structure discourse with my students.

4 “Small Fires” Gather in a small group with chairs only (knee to knee) Choose a starter/recorder Each person at the table tells: – Name – Role – How you feel about being here (positive and negative) – Your expectations Starter will give summary of table responses to large group

5 Discourse Frame of Reference Using a Black Marker write everything you currently know about Discourse. Voices in the Room

6 Circle Map Share Knee to Knee Partner. Take turns sharing what you wrote on your Circle Map about discourse. You may add items from your partner using a marker color other than black. You may also cross out any items that the dialogue with your partner has caused you to revise your thinking.

7 What is Discourse?

8 Definition of Discourse Academic oral discourse is communication of thought by words, talk, and conversation. It includes purposeful reflection and collaboration. “… students ask one another about their thinking and build on the responses of others. They cite evidence, ask for elaborations and clarifications, and extend understandings by using the statements they have heard from their classmates to form new ideas.” Content-Area Conversations (ASCD, 2008) by Douglas Fisher, Nancy Frey and Carol Rothenberg

9 Circle of Voices Read the definition of discourse Pick out a key word, key point, or phrase that is significant to you Form a large circle when directed Participants randomly say their key word, point, or phrase Some points will be repeated (and that’s okay) Activity is completed when everyone shares once

10 Why Discourse?

11 Common Core State Standards SL.CCR.1 Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. SL.CCR.3 Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.

12 “Discourse in the classroom is less than 2 minutes an hour and even less for struggling students.” Wilhelm and Smith, 2012

13 Student-Centered Discussion: https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/str ategies-for-student-centered-discussion (7minutes) https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/str ategies-for-student-centered-discussion

14 What the Research Says About Discourse?

15

16

17 Becoming an Expert on Reasons for Discourse Activity 1.At your table are 23 cards with reasons for embedding discourse. 2.Distribute the cards equally among the people at your table. 3.As you read your assigned reason cards, record on your reason handout key points, ideas, etc. When directed you will be sharing these with others at your table.

18 Expert Share 1.Pick a starter. 2.Round One: 1.Starter gives key points, ideas, etc. for one of their reason cards. 2.Others in the group record on their handout notes from that reason. 3.Continue sharing and recording until all members at the table have shared their key points, ideas, etc. for one of their reason cards. 3.Repeat rounds until all 23 reason cards have been shared and recorded.

19 Reason Categorizing Activity 1.Based on what you know so far are there any patterns that you see emerging for why we should embed discourse in the classroom? 2.Discuss at your table. 3.Now, using the reason title cards at your table and your notes from the previous activity, sort the reason cards into categories determined by your table group. 4.Write the title for your categories on index cards and place above each grouping.

20 Break

21 Museum Walk

22 Academic Conversations (Zwiers amd Crawford, 2011) Conversation Builds – Academic Language – Vocabulary – Literacy Skills – Oral Language and Communication Skills – Critical Thinking Skills – Promotes Different Perspectives and Empathy – Fosters Creativity – Fosters Skills for Negotiating Meaning and Focusing on a Topic

23 Academic Conversations Conversation Builds – Content Understandings – Cultivates Connections – Helps Students to Co-construct Understandings – Helps Teachers and Students Assess Learning – Builds Relationships – Builds Academic Ambience – Make Lessons More Culturally Relevant – Fosters Equity

24 Academic Conversations Conversation – Develops Inner Dialogue and Self-Talk – Fosters Engagement and Motivation – Builds Confidence and Academic Identity – Fosters Choice, Ownership, and Control over Thinking – Builds Academic Identity – Fosters Self-Discovery – Builds Student Voice and Empowerment

25 Based on what you just learned, what are your top four reasons for embedding discourse into your classroom? Record in the blank box on your reason handout. Table Share.

26 What Does Discourse Look Like?

27 A Model for Success for All Students Student Responsibility Teacher Responsibility Whole Group - Model“I do it” Guided Instruction “We do it” Collaboration “You do it together” Independent “You do it alone” Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

28 What Does Discourse Feel Like?

29 Collaborative Conversations

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31

32 Add directions for collaborative conversation protocol

33 Discourse Moves

34 Discourse Moves Expert Groups Read your assigned skill – Elaborate and Clarify pg. 45 – Support Ideas With Examples pg. 47 – Build on or Challenge a Partner’s Idea pg. 51 – Paraphrase pg. 53 – Synthesize Conversation Points pg. 55 Meet with others who read the same skill Decide on key points Go back to home table Each person presents their skill to others at their table

35 Video

36 1 st Viewing of the Video As you watch this video, listen for 5 discourse skills/moves – Elaborate and Clarify – Support Ideas With Examples – Build on or Challenge a Partner’s Idea – Paraphrase – Synthesize Conversation Points Record your observations on the discourse moves placemat

37 Example of Classroom Discourse https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/te aching-the-n-word https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/te aching-the-n-word

38 Discourse Placemat

39 1 st Viewing Video Discussion Share what your findings from the video What did you notice? What did you not notice?

40 Behind the Scenes Look As you watch this video a 2 nd time think about what this teacher and the students did in order to reach this level of discussion? Take notes on the back of your placemat. As a table group record your group’s findings on chart paper. Post on the wall Learning Walk

41 Example of Classroom Discourse https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/te aching-the-n-word https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/te aching-the-n-word

42 Structured Conversations Using Text Sets

43 Developing Your Own Text Sets Give them time to work on this

44 Power of Discourse

45 Piles of Random Thoughts Vs Constructed Ideas Zwiers and Crawford, 2011 Stand up. Make eye contact with someone you don’t know. Discuss: What does this mean? Be prepared to share.

46 Definition of Discourse Academic oral discourse is communication of thought by words, talk, and conversation. It includes purposeful reflection and collaboration. “… students ask one another about their thinking and build on the responses of others. They cite evidence, ask for elaborations and clarifications, and extend understandings by using the statements they have heard from their classmates to form new ideas.” Content-Area Conversations (ASCD, 2008) by Douglas Fisher, Nancy Frey and Carol Rothenberg

47 Depth of Thinking (Webb) + Type of Thinking (Revised Bloom, 2001) DOK Level 1 Recall & Reproduction DOK Level 2 Basic Skills & Concepts DOK Level 3 Strategic Thinking & Reasoning DOK Level 4 Extended Thinking Remember - Recall, locate basic facts, definitions, details, events Understand - Select appropriate words for use when intended meaning is clearly evident - Specify, explain relationships - summarize – identify central ideas - Explain, generalize, or connect ideas using supporting evidence (quote, text evidence, example…) - Explain how concepts or ideas specifically relate to other content domains or concepts Apply - Use language structure (pre/suffix) or word relationships (synonym/antonym) to determine meaning – Use context to identify word meanings - Obtain and interpret information using text features - Use concepts to solve non-routine problems - Devise an approach among many alternatives to research a novel problem Analyze - Identify the kind of information contained in a graphic, table, visual, etc. – Compare literary elements, facts, terms, events – Analyze format, organization, & text structures -Analyze or interpret author’s craft (e.g., literary devices, viewpoint, or potential bias) to critique a text – Analyze multiple sources or texts - Analyze complex/ abstract themes Evaluate – Cite evidence and develop a logical argument for conjectures based on one text or problem - Evaluate relevancy, accuracy, & completeness of information across texts/ sources Create - Brainstorm ideas, concepts, problems, or perspectives related to a topic or concept -Generate conjectures or hypotheses based on observations or prior knowledge and experience -Develop a complex model for a given situation -Develop an alternative solution -Synthesize information across multiple sources or texts -Articulate a new voice, alternate theme, new knowledge or perspective A “Snapshot” of the Cognitive Rigor Matrix ( Hess, Carlock, Jones, & Walkup, 2009 )

48 Red Skelton Explicating The Pledge of Allegiance OZCM OZCM

49 Explicating the Meaning of Discourse “Paulo Freire was concerned with praxis – action that is informed (and linked to certain values). Dialogue wasn’t just about deepening understanding – but was part of making a difference in the world. Dialogue in itself is a co-operative activity involving respect. The process is important and can be seen as enhancing community and building social capital and to leading us to act in ways that make for justice and human flourishing.”

50 Quotes

51 Conservations not only made us sound smarter, I think they actually made us smarter. It was weird. When we finished, we had a totally new idea. The book was only so-so, but our conversations about it were awesome. Science wasn’t very interesting until we started talking about it. When we talked to each other, we put our brains together, we become one big smart! We were still talking about history when class was over!

52 Teacher Quotes from the Group What will discourse do for your students? What will discourse do for your teaching? How will discourse enhance your content? What impact will discourse have on student learning? How will discourse change the world around you?

53 Resources

54 Socratic Circles Fostering Critical and Creative Thinking in Middle and High School by Matt Copeland Socratic Circles Fostering Critical and Creative Thinking in Middle and High School Academic Conversations Classroom Talk That Fosters Critical Thinking and Content Understandings by Jeff Zwiers and Marie Crawford Academic Conversations Classroom Talk That Fosters Critical Thinking and Content Understandings Inside the Black Box, 2 nd Edition, Black and Wiliam Inside the Black Box, Conversation: The Comprehension Connection by Ann Ketch Conversation: The Comprehension Connection

55 Choice Words, Peter Johnston Choice Words Opening Minds, Peter Johnston Opening Minds files/Durlak_Weissberg_Meta- analysis%20of%20SEL%20Programs_CD_20 11.pdf files/Durlak_Weissberg_Meta- analysis%20of%20SEL%20Programs_CD_20 11.pdf

56 Examples of Classroom Discourse https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/te aching-the-n-word https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/te aching-the-n-word https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/usi ng-socratic-seminars-in-classroom https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/usi ng-socratic-seminars-in-classroom https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/lit eracy-analysis-lesson https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/lit eracy-analysis-lesson

57 Protocol Resources ml ml Adaptive Schools


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