2Deficit Approaches and Models – Impersonal Perspective Social Presence TheorySocial Context Cues TheoryCuelessness ModelMedia Richness Model
3Response to Deficit/Impersonal SIDE ModelSIP Model
4Social Presence Theory Degree to which we as individuals perceive another as a real person and any interaction between the two as a relationshipDifferent media convey different degrees of perceived substance to an interactionInternet not functional alternative to FtF – rather specialized channelPeople prefer FtF to meet most communication needs
5Social Context Cues Theory Social context cues are indicators of appropriate behavior.Some social cues include geographic, organizational, and situational variables.Lack of social cues affects on the nature of human behavior in mediated contexts (Wood and Smith 81).
6Cuelessness ModelAbsence of all nonverbal cues and identity markers (e.g., status, occupational role)Psychological distance increases resulting in more impersonal communication(Criticism) High in cuelessness can still be psychologically close (Thurlow, Lengel, and Tomic 49)
7Media Richness Model Richness determined by: Bandwidth or ability to transmit multiple cuesAbility to give immediate feedbackAbility to support the use of natural or conversational languageIts personal focus (Thurlow 49)More complex the task the richer the medium necessary (rich medium = telephone or FtF communication)
8Reduced Social Cues (RSC) Model Reduced social cues makes interactions between people much more difficult to manageConversation becomes less fluid, less easily regulated and more effortful (Thurlow 61)CMC undermines social norms and influences (Thurlow 61)
9SIDE Model Social identification/deindividuation People online rely even more on group-based discriminators.Users adopt norms (accepted social behaviors).Anonymity fosters stronger “SIDE” effects toward group mentality.Anonymity encourages stronger self-categorization.
10Social Information Processing Model (SIP) Need for social bonding is the same in CMC as it is in FtF communication (communication imperative)People can compensate for loss of non-verbal cues in CMC.Relational and contextual factors can enhance interpersonal nature of CMC (Thurlow 51)
11Social Influence Model Media use results from negotiation between features of medium and social conditions (Wood and Smith 97)Example: flaming – both behavior and interpretation of behavior
12Thurlow, Crispin, Lengel, Laura, and Tomic, Alice Thurlow, Crispin, Lengel, Laura, and Tomic, Alice. Computer Mediated Communication: Social Interaction and the Internet. Sage Publications, 2005.Wood, Andrew F. and Matthew J. Smith. Online Communication: Linking Technology, Identity, and Culture. Second Edition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005.Chapter 4, “Relating Online” (78-100)