1 Psychology 3260: Personality & Social Development Don Hartmann Spring 2006 Lecture 24: Families: Parenting
2 References Collins, W. A., Maccoby, E. E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E. M., Bornstein,M. H. (2003). Contemporary research on parenting: The case for nature and nurture. In E. A. Farber & M. E. Hertzig (Eds.) Annual progress in child psychiatry and child development: 2000-2001 (pp.125-153). New York: Brunner-Routledge. Parke, R. D., & Buriel, R. (1998). Socialization in the family: Ethnic and ecological perspective. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (5 th ed., pp. 463-552). New York: Wiley.
3 Overview: Parenting Text Overlap: Pp. 347-357 Lecture: INTRODUCTION Methodology & Biases CONCEPTUALIZING THE FAMILY THE CHANGING AMERICAN FAMILY INTRODUCTION TO DISCIPLINARY PRACTICES Parenting techniques, parental style, and parental values Why we must be cautious Next: Lecture #25: Families (Discipline)
4 Exam II Essay Results Range: 22-60; Mdn.=44.5; 100%=56 Score fLGI* 60- 1A++ 55-59 4A+ 50-54 7B+ 45-4915B- 40-4414C- 35-39 5D- 30-34 4E <30 3E *LCI=Lowest Grade in Interval
5 Other Administration My apologies for all of the delays. I wasn’t much able to work at home before yesterday If you requested an appointment via email, please do so again, as I am about as far behind with emails as with everything else. I have tried to give the highest email priority to abstract/references. If you have sent me other material, I probably have it, but haven’t yet opened it. Please persevere. Sorry that I missed the “Abuse” presentation. I understand that you did well under some duress.
6 WEB Discussion Topic #36 III. K. Defining altruistic acts. Morally Distinguished. Summary/evaluation due Friday, April 14th. The problem of definition is about as serious with altruism as it is with aggression. How do you define altruism? Is there any problems with that definition? Would it be useful to someone observing children on a playground? Also comment on at least one other participant’s reply.
7 WEB Discussion Assignments & Due Dates WEB Assignment # Group IIIIIIV CSI02/24 (02/24)03/21 (03-24)04/11 Growing Pain02/27 (03/10)04/05 Psyched02/28 (02/27)03/22 (03/22)04/12 Agrrrression03/01 (03/01)03/23 (03/22)04/13 Authoritarians 03/02 (03/06)03/31 Divas03/03 (03/06)03/20 Peer Pressure03/06 (03/06)04/03 Morally Distinguished03/08 ??????04/14 Raging Hormones03/09 (03/08)04/04 Bono03/10 (03/10)04/07 Girlie03/13 04/10 Note: Each discussion topic closes at 5:00 p.m. two days prior to the stated due data. Note: I will disband any WEB discussion group that is more than 5 days late in completing an assigned summary! I HAVE NOT UPDATED THIS TABLE FOR A WEEK, BUT WILL THIS WEEKEND
8 Panel Discussion Schedule Wednesday… Feb. 29 th : Identity (Murquia et al.) Mar. 08 th : Gender (Marcus et al.) Mar. 29 th : Bullying (Borski et al.) Apr. 05 nd : Child Abuse (Kyle et al.) Apr. 12 th : Parenting styles & discipline (Vrabel et al.) Apr. 19 th : Peer and family relations (Talebreza et al.) ----- Note: Let’s get those question marks resolved!
9 Handout Summary Handout WEB Date Date 34. Lect. 17b: lSC: Self-esteem-----02/27 35. Lect. 17c: SC: Identity-----03/15 36. Lect. Supplement: Theory of Mind (notes)-----03/02 37. Panel Presentation #1-----03/03 38. Lect. #18: Achievement-----03/06 39. Study Guide #8-----03/06 40. Lect. #19: Gender—Gays & Lesbian-----03/09 41. Study Guide #9-----03/13 42. Study Guide #10-----03/16 43. Panel Presentation #2-----03/?? ----- 44. Lect. #23a: Aggression—General-----03/26 45. Study Guide #11-----03/29 46. Student Presentation #3: Bullying-----03/30 47. lect. #21: Bullying-----03/30 48. Lect. #??: Prosocial Behavior-----04/07 49. Lect. #23: Moral Reasoning (Kohlberg)-----04/07 50. Study Guide #12-----04/07 ----- *Handout date refers to the date the handout was distributed in class. WEB date indicates the date the handout should have been included on the class WEB site. A dashed line indicates that the handout either was not distributed in class or was not placed on the WEB.
11 Introduction Is the family important? What does the culture tell us? The family is the primary repository of the culture and subculture And all of these currents and cross- currents affect how the family socializes its children—think Bronfenbrenner.
12 Methods of Study; Biases Methods: Interview and observations of naturally occurring & simulated (analogue) events Problems with analogues: How many of the characteristics of the family ‑‑ and which family ‑‑ were preserved in the analogue? Biases: ethnocentric bias one ‑ way causation, from parent to child
13 The Family As A Social System: Bidirectional Causation
15 The Family As A Social System: Developmental Stages Certain fairly predictable developmental periods and accompanying issues. E.g., when children in adolescence: Parents concerned about educational costs and perhaps, empty nests Mothers concerned about loosing their beauty and stamina Fathers concerned with meeting their ambitions, and hearing the footsteps getting closer and closer of the next generation of workers Both parents, perhaps saying the words of the old Peggy Lee song: “Is that all there is?”
16 The Changing American Family (1) What is the nuclear family? working dad, homemaker mom, and 2 kids living in family composes, at most, 12% of families 50% of children will spend part of their time in a single ‑ parent family In general, we have a great deal of diversity in family structure
17 The Changing American Family (2) The role of fathers: According to 1971 study by Rebelsky & Hanks, with 2 week to 3 month old children, fathers spend 2.7 interactions with a total of 40 seconds daily The thoroughly modern father?
18 Discipline Introduction Aspects of parenting (how do we cut the pie?): disciplinary technique: power assertion, love withdrawal, & reasoning (e.g., induction) parenting style a la Baumrind: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, & (sometimes) indifferent—defined by 2 x 2 table
21 Discipline Aspects of parental behavior (continued): PARENTAL VALUES: education? baton twirling? Skilled thievery? Power? Sociability? Any discussion of the impact of parenting that does not take all three aspects into account must be flawed!
22 Interdependence of “Aspects of Parental Behavior:” 1 To talk about the affects of each aspect independent of the other factors clearly does an injustice.E.g., a focus on the effects of discipline may convey the notion that the kind of discipline is far more important than the behaviors which are disciplined (value) Nevertheless, there is evidence that induction produces better child outcomes than does power assertion or love withdrawal Extrinsic rewards can under-mind behaviors (Mark Lepper)
23 Interdependence of “Aspects of Parental Behavior:” 2 that all parents discipline the same behaviors (values) so that the only thing that differs between parents is the form of their discipline Remember the story about the father who encouraged his son to kill birds!
24 Interdependence of “Aspects of Parental Behavior:” 3 that parents are consistent across behaviors in how they discipline, rather than somehow matching the discipline with the transgression NO: Study by Grusec and Kuczynski (Dev. Psych., 1980, 16 (1), 1-9. Mothers reported using different disciplinary techniques for different child (mis)behaviors.
25 Summary of Parenting Lecture Lecture: METHODOLOGY & BIASES THE CHANGING AMERICAN FAMILY Introduction to disciplinary practices: Why we must be cautious when discussing parenting techniques, parental style, and parental values Next: Lecture #25 (Discipline) GO IN PEACE