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RENEWABLE ENERGY: THE POTENTIAL AND TRENDS IN GHANA SAMUEL ASUMADU-SARKODIE Energy Systems and Sustainability (SEES-502) Term Paper Presentation METU NCC.

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Presentation on theme: "RENEWABLE ENERGY: THE POTENTIAL AND TRENDS IN GHANA SAMUEL ASUMADU-SARKODIE Energy Systems and Sustainability (SEES-502) Term Paper Presentation METU NCC."— Presentation transcript:

1 RENEWABLE ENERGY: THE POTENTIAL AND TRENDS IN GHANA SAMUEL ASUMADU-SARKODIE Energy Systems and Sustainability (SEES-502) Term Paper Presentation METU NCC

2 2 Introduction Problem Statement Justification Research Objectives Critical Analysis Independent Assessment Assumptions/Proposal Conclusion and Recommendations References Outline

3 3 Source: Google Earth, 2014

4 4 Source: MOE, 2012

5 5 Renewable energy sources are more than enough to meet current energy demands worldwide although the estimates of such potential vary in literature [1]. Aside their enormous potential, renewables offer further advantages by enhancing diversity in energy supply markets, secure long term sustainable energy supplies and reduce local and atmospheric emissions [2]. Introduction

6 6 Regardless of Ghana’s potential in solar, wind, biomass and hydro, the country still faces challenges in its energy system since little has been done to utilize these renewable energy options. Problem Statement

7 7 The Eight Hundred and Thirty-Second ACT of Parliament of the Republic of Ghana entitled: Renewable Energy Act, 2011 has assented to provide for the development, management, utilization, sustainability and adequate supply of renewable energy for the generation of heat, and power by the year 2020 [4]. Justification

8 8 1.To identify renewable resources in Ghana. 2.To ascertain what has already been done with the available renewable resources. 3.To evaluate the current energy capacity in Ghana. 4.To propose how the country’s recent energy crises can be minimized with the national energy mix. Research Objectives

9 9 Energy Production & Utilization 1

10 10 Energy Production & Utilization 2

11 11 Annual sunshine duration ranges between 1800 to 3000 hours per annum which offers a high potential for grid connection Ghana’s Potential Sources of RE—Solar Energy Agro-climatic ZoneRegionIntensity (kWh/m 2 -day) Savannah (close to the Sahel) Upper East, Upper West, Northern, upper parts of Brong- Ahafo & Volta Regions 4.0 – 6.5 kWh/m 2 -day Middle Forest Zone Ashanti, Eastern, Western and parts of Central, Brong-Ahafo, Volta Regions 3.1 – 5.8 kWh/m 2 -day Savannah (Coastal belt) Greater Accra, coastal parts of Central & Volta Regions 4.0 – 6.0 kWh/m 2 -day SOLAR INTENSITIES OF AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONES IN GHANA Source: MOE, 2012

12 12 Source: MOE, 2012

13 Limitation of Solar Energy Potential All over the country, diffuse radiation constitutes over 30% of the total solar radiation which is not a good indicator for concentrating collectors used in solar thermal power plants. However, Flat plate solar collectors and PV modules are not affected by the diffuse fraction [3]. 13

14 14 The best of Ghana’s wind resources are located primarily along the narrow stretches of the eastern coastline with speeds of mostly 6–7 m/s at 50 m (which are classified as “marginal” for wind generation) [4]. Nonetheless, it is likely that, grid-connected wind power will be economical than grid-connected solar power. According to the Ministry of Energy, wind may have the largest capacity for development among the options and has the potential of contributing significantly to grid power of about MW producing 600 GWh [4] Ghana’s Potential Sources of RE—Wind Energy

15 15 Source: MOE, 2012

16 Ghana’s Potential Sources of RE—Biomass 1 72% of total energy consumption comes from Biomass in the form of woodfuel and charcoal mainly used for cooking and heating [4]. 16

17 17 According to MOE: 2012, out of the 23.8 million hectares of Ghana’s land, biomass covers about 20.8 million hectares [4]. In 2007, consumption of energy from biomass was 11.7 million tonnes (63%) while petroleum products and electricity consumption were million tonnes (27%) and 6,269 GWh (9%) respectively [4]. Ghana’s Potential Sources of RE—Biomass 2

18 18 Source: MOE, 2012

19 19 According to the MOE, the potential useable hydro resource for Ghana is about 2500MW. 1,020 MW from Akosombo dam 160 MW Kpong Plant 400 MW Bui Hydroelectric Project 840MW capacity is located at about 21 sites with generating capacities ranging between 4kW-325kW. Ghana’s Potential Sources of RE—Hydro

20 20 Source: MOE, 2012

21 21 Current Trends Of Renewable Energy Technologies 2530Systems 3500Systems 4911Systems 700Systems 335Systems 160kW 353kW 510kW 800kW 1000kW Year No. of Systems Installed Power Source: Obeng 2008 EVOLUTION OF SOLAR PV INSTALLATIONS IN GHANA (Over 5,000 at present)

22 Solar PV Application As Of Source: Obeng 2008

23 23 The strategic objective of the energy sector in Ghana is to accelerate the development and utilization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies so as to achieve 10% penetration of national electricity demand mix by The MOE states that Ghana’s exploitable potential of 500MW from; wind, solar, hydro and biomass/waste-to- energy sources would need investment of $640m-$900m. Energy Mix As A Sustainable Electricity Production In Ghana 1

24 24 Based on the assumptions, it is necessary to propose generation mix of expansion options by installed capacity. Energy Mix As A Sustainable Electricity Production In Ghana 2 Projection of the 10% Renewable Energy in the Electricity Generation Mix by 2020

25 25 Energy Mix As A Sustainable Electricity Production In Ghana 2 Projections of the average generation mix by installed capacity of the expansion plans

26 26 Energy Mix As A Sustainable Electricity Production In Ghana 3 Projections of the average generation mix by installed capacity of the expansion plans

27 27 Energy Mix As A Sustainable Electricity Production In Ghana 4 Projections of the average generation mix by installed capacity of the expansion plans

28 28 Since access to energy has been proven to directly affect human development, an option of diversified local energy mix for electricity production will be the best choice to develop an “Energy Economy” that would ensure secure and reliable supply of high quality energy services for all Ghanaian homes (both urban and rural), businesses, industries and the transport sector while making significant contribution to the export earnings of the country. Conclusions

29 29 Guaranteed market for the energy generated Since Renewable Energy Stands tall in Ghana’s Energy Policy Agenda, there is the need for capital subsidy and tariff in order to attract private sector investment. Recommendations

30 30 1.U.S. Department of Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Wind Resource Map for Ghana – 50m. Available at:http://www.nrel.gov/wind/pdfs/ghana.pdf. 2.Kaunda, Chiyembekezo S., Cuthbert Z. Kimambo, and Torbjorn K. Nielsen. "Potential of small-scale hydropower for electricity generation in Sub-Saharan Africa." International Scholarly Research Notices 2012 (2012). 3.Gboney, William, (2009). Policy and Regulatory Framework for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Development in Ghana. Available at: Accessed on 17 th October, 2014Policy and Regulatory Framework for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Development in Ghana 4.Energy Commission, (2009). Renewable Energy Policy Framework for Climate Change Mitigation in Ghana. Review of Existing Renewable Energy Resource Data, Energy Policies, Strategies, Plans and Projects. Available at: change_reeep-energy-commission_.pdf. Accessed on 22 nd November, References

31 31 Questions / Comments


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