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++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++ Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries: South Africa Prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate Change by Ogunlade.

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Presentation on theme: "++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++ Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries: South Africa Prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate Change by Ogunlade."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries: South Africa Prepared for the Pew Center on Global Climate Change by Ogunlade Davidson Energy & Development Research Centre, University of Cape Town

2 Overview Africa’s most industrialized country, largest energy user and largest GHG emitter World’s fourth largest coal producer Undergoing profound economic, social change since end of Apartheid in 1994 Overriding objective of ruling African National Congress is sustainable economic development

3 Energy/Emissions  With just 5% of Africa’s population, consumes half of all electricity produced on continent  About 1/3 of population not connected to power supply grid  Coal accounts for 75% of total energy and 91% of power generation  Coal-based liquid fuels developed to overcome Apartheid-era trade restrictions

4 Energy/Emissions  Energy sector accounts for roughly 80% of total GHG emissions  Energy-related emissions grew 2% a year through 1990s  Per capita, nearly 2X world average and 10X African average  Emissions intensity relatively high compared to other developing countries  Agriculture, forests a net carbon sink

5 South African Figures

6 Mitigating Measures  Energy Restructuring  Corporatization of Eskom, state- owned electric utility  30% of assets to be sold by 2006  Six new regional utilities to be created  Ongoing debate on whether to allow independent power producers and competition  South African Power Pool to allow electricity trading among countries

7 Mitigating Measures  Fuel Substitution  Subsidies for coal-based liquid fuels expected to end by 2005  Lifting of trade embargo allows import of cleaner energy  Sasol, country’s main synthetic fuel producer, investing in natural gas fields in Namibia, Mozambique  Natural gas to replace coal as feedstock for liquid fuels

8 Mitigating Measures  Energy Efficiency  Programs with industry, consumers to reduce peak demand  GEF/Eskom aim to install 18 million compact fluorescents over 20 years  Efficiency standards for commercial buildings to become mandatory  Residential efficiency standards developed, but not mandatory

9 Mitigating Measures  Renewables  Provide less than 2% of electricity  Eskom developing over 100 MW of wind and solar thermal power  Off-grid electrification program to provide 350,000 solar home systems  Private sugar companies run 5 bagasse-and-coal-fired power plants

10 Mitigation Opportunities  Continued energy restructuring  Eliminate subsidies for emissions- intensive synthetic fuels  Adjust power rates to internalize environmental costs and allow return on efficiency investments  Remove energy trade barriers and facilitate investment in energy sector Mitigation Potential: 4 MtC in 2010

11 Mitigation Opportunities  Stimulate renewable energy  Government proposes increasing share of renewables from 9% to 14% of final energy consumption by 2010  Strong potential for solar, wind, biomass, ocean energy, hydropower  Proposal: Renewable portfolio standard requiring 5% of electricity by 2010 and 20% by 2025 Mitigation Potential: 3 MtC in 2010

12 Mitigation Opportunities  Diversify energy sources  Complete substitution of natural gas for coal in production of synthetic petroleum Mitigation Potential: 5-10 MtC in 2010

13 Mitigation Opportunities Total Mitigation Potential: MtC

14 Conclusions  Strong complimentarity between GHG mitigation and South Africa’s overriding objectives of reducing poverty, creating jobs, meeting basic human needs, and promoting sustainable economic development


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