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Rachel “Emeline” Ferdinandi. Also called Teutonic Speakers of Common Germanic lived in Northern Europe, and expanded south in the First Millennium BC.

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Presentation on theme: "Rachel “Emeline” Ferdinandi. Also called Teutonic Speakers of Common Germanic lived in Northern Europe, and expanded south in the First Millennium BC."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rachel “Emeline” Ferdinandi


3 Also called Teutonic Speakers of Common Germanic lived in Northern Europe, and expanded south in the First Millennium BC Roman Tacitus left a monograph on Germanic people and customs. He lists the tribes and describes their religions, children's games, and other aspects of their culture. Germanic people borrowed words from Uralic (Finnish and Estonian) and Balto-Slavic languages.

4 A series of three separate sound changes which shifted all inherited Proto-Indo-European stops. Stages- Grimm I- changes the PIE voiceless stops into voiceless fricatives. Does not apply if the consonant is preceededby the letter s Grimm II- changes voiced stops into voiceless stops Grimm III- changes voiced aspirated into voice stops

5 Rasmus Christian Rask- first to understand the sound changes that make up Grimm’s Law. He compared Germanic, Slavic, Lithuanian, and Greek. Explained the umlaut. One of three pioneering figures in rhe early ninteenth century Indo European Studies. Johann Jacob Grimm- (Grimm Brothers) philologist and dialectologist. Second of three pioneering figures in early ninteenth century Indo-European studies. Noticed the same sound change as Rask, and publish his own version of the Law.

6 Germanic languages split into three different branches East Germanic North Germanic West Germanic

7 East Germanic The spelling and alphabet were based off of the Greek’s Uses Proto Germanic vowels more than any other German language Goth’s homeland was in Scandinavia, they expanded to the Baltic coast, and south east to the Black sea. Atta unsar þu in himinam Our father, thou in heaven, weihnai namo þein holy be thy name. qimai þiudinassus þeins Thy kingdom come, wairþai wilja þeins thy will be done, swe in himina jah ana airþai. as in heaven also on earth

8 North Germanic The alphabet is called futhark. The first Germanic alphabet, used only in magic or religious rituals. It was meant to be inscribed onto wood. it is most likely based off of a northern Etruscan alphabet. The earliest runes found were on a brooch and is from the middle of the first century AD.

9 North Germanic Most likely developed from Runic. Spoke around the 7 th - 10 th century AD Speakers from western Scandinavian coasts, Norway, and parts of Sweden and Denmark. Most Vikings spoke Old Norse, raided as much of Europe as they could reach by boat. Old Norse languages have more words and shorter words than other Germanic languages

10 The first Old Norse rune appeared around the 7 th century AD, and different dialects appeared shortly after. Old Norse literature shows pre-Christian Germanic myths and folklore more than other Germanic lit. There are historical counts of travels and raids and mythic poetry dated back to the 12 th century Edda is a collection of mythological poems which represent the earliest of Old Norse literature. Skaldic poetry-poetry that uses elaborate and dense metaphors, which make it difficult to understand


12 North Germanic Runic and Norse are it’s ancestor Differences in Old Norse developed into the modern Scandinavian languages o Icelandic o Faroese o Norwegian o Danish o Swedish

13 West Germanic Also called Anglo-Saxon First scripts are from around the year 400 AD Most literature was written between the 8 th and 11 th centuries. The oldest poem found was dated around 650 AD Beowulf was originally written in Old English Its major dialects were West Saxon, Northumbrian, Mercian, and Kentish. Palatization, sounds change. C became ch, and g became y. Drencan became drench

14 West Germanic Between 1000 and 1500 AD Normans attacked Middle English nobility, and replaced the native clergy and scribes with of Norman French, so 1000 to 1150 are poorly documented, and during this time Middle English speakers adopted hundreds of French words English speakers gained prestige in 1204 when the French lost Normandy in 1204

15 West Germanic English since 1500 AD It’s largest linguistic development was the Great English Vowel Shift which occurred in the 18 th century. All of the long low and mid vowels were raised, and the long high vowels became diphthongs. Bīten became bite Sēen became see

16 West Germanic Dutch is the descendant of Old Low Franconian. Some descendants of Dutch speak Afrikaans, others speak Flemish. These languages and their dialects are often together called Netherlandic West Germanic Frisian is the closest living language to English. The earliest script of this language is from the 13 th century, although there are scripts from the 6 th to 9 th centuries that could be an earlier form of Frisian.

17 West Germanic Spoken until the 12 th century. Descendants speak Low German, which was an important language between the 13 th and 15 th centuries. Heliand “Savior” composed in 830 AD. Tells the life of Christ. Linguistically close to Old English.

18 West Germanic First appears in runic inscriptions around 600 AD. The first literature appears around 800 AD 6 dialects: East Frankish, Old Alemannic, Old Bavarian, South Rhine Franconian, Rhine Franconian, and West Frankish. Frankish, part of these dialects, but often thought of as it’s own West Germanic language extremely influenced French. Most of the literature that is left of this language is from Christian monasteries but there are a few pagan scripts. Hildebrandsleid


20 Zweite Lautverschiebung German translation means Second Sound Shift, second after Grimm’s Law English German Pound Pfund Tin Zinn Cook Kchoch Ape Affe Water Wasser Make Machen

21 West Germanic First developed around 1100 AD. It was the first standard German Important literature is poetry, with Christian themes. Epic; Nibelungenlied and romance; courtly poetry.

22 West Germanic The most important influence on this language’s development was Martin Luther’s translation of the Bible, both New and Old Testament. Martin Luther included linguistic aspects of many regions, and used modern words and expressions.

23 West Germanic Literally means Jewish (Jűdisch) A cross between Hebrew and Bavarian or East Middle German. Influenced by polish and Slavic languages Sentence structure and about ¾ of the vocabulary is German. Usually uses the Hebrew alphabet. First documents are from the 12 th century.

24 Forston, Benjamin W. IV. Indo-European Language and Culture an Introduction.

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