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The Reformation of the Catholic Church Martin Luther and his 95 Theses, 1517.

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1 The Reformation of the Catholic Church Martin Luther and his 95 Theses, 1517

2 Martin Luther

3 Disorder in the Catholic Church Priests not very religious and didn’t live the lifestyle of Christ and the disciples. – Clerical immorality (mistresses, children, drunkenness, gambling) – Clerical ignorance (most couldn’t read Latin, or at all) – Clerical pluralism (held many church jobs at once) – Clerical absenteeism (never at their job) – Indulgences (get into heaven for payment or pardon of sin for payment) Church jobs given to govt. officials

4 Martin Luther, 1483-1546 German friar of modest background Attended college (rare for his upbringing) – Doctorate of Theology Served as professor at Wittemberg University Became weary of religious rituals and disorder in the church After much study and consideration, he came to believe that faith was a free gift and not based on works.

5 Indulgences Pope Leo X allowed Archbishop Albert to sell indulgences to repay a debt to a banking family (The Fuggers) Indulgences= the sale of forgiveness of sin or ticket into heaven Albert hired friar Tetzel to sell the indulgences in his behalf – Launched an advertising campaign – Problematic because people believed they didn’t have to have a relationship with God.

6 The 95 Theses, 1517 Luther writes an attack on the church and its corrupt practices in this “95 Theses” Believed that indulgences: – Challenged the seriousness of the faith – Challenged the importance of a Christian lifestyle He rejected the idea that salvation comes from good deeds He challenged the authority of the Pope because Leo allowed indulgences to exist – Dangerous for Luther!

7 Reaction of the Church Luther went as far to say that the church was wrong in condemning Jan Hus at the Council of Constance (concilliar movement) Luther threatened with excommunication Holy Roman Emperor (Germany was part of this empire), Charles V called a meeting of the empire, the Diet of Worms, 1521 – Luther asked to recant, but didn’t

8 Protestant Religion Comes from the word “protest” – Those who protested at the Diet of Speyer, 1521 – Early protesters were called “Lutherans,” but later the term was attached to all groups protesting the Catholic church

9 Confession of Augsburg, 1530 Officially determined the Protestant religion, according to Luther: – Salvation comes from faith alone – Church authority comes from the Word of God alone – The Church is a body of Christian believers – Everyone should serve according to their calling

10 The Sacraments Luther believed only 3 of the 7 sacraments were legitimate – Baptism (symbolic emersion into water) – Penance (forgiveness and actions) – Eucharist (the “Lord’s Supper”) Differed in symbolism of the Eucharist Followed consubstantiation- the bread and wine are symbols of the body and blood of Christ. Catholics followed transubstantiation- the bread and wine ARE the body and blood of Christ.

11 Response Please respond to the following prompt in your notebook: What compelled Martin Luther to write his 95 Theses, specifically, and what was the response of the church?

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