Presentation on theme: "Environmental Health Carcinogenesis Week 7. Genotoxicity: toxic effects on genetic material Cancer Developmental (gestational timing crucial) Somatic."— Presentation transcript:
Genotoxicity: toxic effects on genetic material Cancer Developmental (gestational timing crucial) Somatic diseases
The nature of “life information”… DNA structure –Base-sugar-triphosphate –Purines: A, G; Pyrimidines: C, T(U) –Double helix; A-T; C-G pairs –Chromosomes (with chromatin) –Humans: 23 autos. pairs + sex pair (XY, XX) DNA (code) --> protein: 3nucleic acids /1 aminoacid Universal code - the same principles and molecules in every organism (amoebas to humans) Genes (units of information) are the same in every cell of an organism, but expression of genes varies by cell/tissue Conserved and variable regions of code
Types of Genotoxic effects Chromosomal aberrations –Deletions –Duplications –Inversions –Translocations –Sister chromatid exchanges Gene mutations –Point mutations (base replacement) –Frameshift mutations (insertion/deletion of part of gene)
Mutagens: agents that cause a mutation Mutation: Alteration in the genetic code (DNA sequence of nucleotides), that may result in altered population of cells or organisms (nucleic DNA most important) Mutations –Adaptation/survival and speciation –Disease and death
Effects of mutations Silent - no effect Change in gene expression –protein amount, location, timing Change in structure of protein –Single aminoacid change (especially hydrophilic-phobic) –Multiple aminoacids/Trancation –Change or loss of activity Inefficient or improper biochemical process Altered cell function Disease; cancer; birth defects; hereditary diseases
Cancer, a.k.a. malignant neoplasm Uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells –Solid tumors: liver, lung, intestine, breast, etc –Blood and lymphatic system, incl. bone marrow Reasons for increased cancer incidence: –increased age –increased number of carcinogens present –other?
Cancer is the leading disease-related cause of years of life lost in the US. Causes of Death –All causes –Unintentional injuries –Cancer –Heart disease –Suicide, homicide –Congenital anomalies Years of Life Lost* –11,761,000 –2,306,000 –1,803,000 –1,563,000 –1,247,000 –584,000 * Estimated years of life lost before the age of 65
Carcinogenesis Terms Chemical Carcinogenesis is the chemically-induced generation of cancerous growths in living organisms. Cancerous growths are often called neoplasms. A neoplasm is an abnormal tissue mass, the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of normal tissue and persists in a similar manner following cessation of stimulus. Unique feature is the continuous replication of a cell population.
Cancer is therefore the malignant uncontrolled proliferation of neoplastic cells. Also a description of a multitude of different disease states (~200)
Malignant vs. Benign Neoplasms Benign –Usually encapsulated –Usually non-invasive –Highly differentiated –Rare mitoses –Slow growth –Little or no anaplasia –No metastases Malignant –Encapsulated –Invasive –Poorly differentiated –Mitoses relatively common –Rapid growth –Anaplastic to varying degrees –Metastases
The many faces of cancer Malignant neoplasms are usually called carcinomas (endo- or ectoderm) or sarcomas (mesoderm). Exceptions are hematopoietic malignancies, melanoma, neuroblastoma, thymoma.
Effective elimination of carcinogens is a means of protection
Carcinogenesis Initiation –Dose related –Dividing cells in site are targets –Genetic damage on expressed genes –Can be repaired Promotion –Activation of initiated cell –First cell of tumor Progression –Rapid (relatively) expansion of abnormal cells See also p. 267, 271, 275 of Casarett and Doull’s “Toxicology”
Liver tumor incidence after daily doses of 2-acetylaminofluorene
Tumor response on mice initiated with 0.2 mol of dimethylbenzanthracene and promoted with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate
Potency of carcinogens Defined as the slope of the dose-response curve for induction of neoplasms Iball index (% animals with tumors) TD 50 (used in comparative list) T 25 (dose rate that gives 25% of neoplasms at specific site) See also p. 301 of Casarett and Doull’s “Toxicology”
Clonal Selection Model of Neoplastic Progression
The multistep pathway to colorectal cancer By B. Vogelstein