HOW MUCH ARE CANCERS RELATED TO OCCUPATIONS? %2-8 (1981 Doll&Peto) Every year 25,000-100,000 new case in USA
DEFINING OF CARCINOGENS The control of occupational carcinogenic substance is exercised by scientific researches on human beings and experimental modeling systems. It differs from some countries to other's because of differences in legislative implementations. For example, a certain chemical was defined as carcinogen in Finland, after a while Denmark marked it as carcinogen. In this period ACGIH(American Conference of Industrial Hygienists) accepted it as suspecious carcinogen.
IARC The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is part of the World Health Organization. IARC's mission is to coordinate and conduct research on the causes of human cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and to develop scientific strategies for cancer prevention and control. The Agency is involved in both epidemiological and laboratory research and disseminates scientific information through publications, meetings, courses, and fellowships.World Health Organization
SECTION OF IARC MONOGRAPHS This Section produces the IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. The IARC Monographs are a series of scientific reviews that identify environmental factors that can increase the risk of cancer. The Section also convenes scientific workshops on the use of new kinds of information to identify carcinogens. Studies of molecular epidemiology and of mechanisms of carcinogenesis have the potential to identify new chemicals and complex exposures that contribute to cancer development but have not or cannot be studied by other means.
LIST OF CLASSIFICATION Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans Group 3: Not classifiable as to carcinogenicity to humans Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans
GROUP 1: CARCINOGENIC TO HUMANS Agents and groups of agents - 108 Such as Arsenic [7440-38-2] and arsenic compounds Asbestos [1332-21-4] Benzene [71-43-2] Cadmium [7440-43-9] and cadmium compounds Formaldehyde [50-00-0] … Coal-tar pitches [65996-93-2] -Mixtures Soots Tobacco, smokeless Wood dust … Exposure circumstances: Boot and shoe manufacture and repair Chimney sweeping Iron and steel founding Isopropyl alcohol manufacture (strong-acid process) Tobacco smoking and tobacco smoke
GROUP 2A: PROBABLY CARCINOGENIC TO HUMANS Agents and groups of agents - 66 Such as Androgenic (anabolic) steroids Lead compounds, inorganic Ultraviolet radiation Diesel engine exhaust - Mixtures High-temperature frying, emissions Non-arsenical insecticides… Exposure circumstances: Art glass, glass containers and pressed ware (manufacture of) Carbon electrode manufacture Cobalt metal with tungsten carbide Hairdresser or barber (occupational exposure as a) Petroleum refining (occupational exposures in) Shiftwork that involves circadian disruption Sunlamps and sunbeds (use of)
GROUP 2B: POSSIBLY CARCINOGENIC TO HUMANS Agents and groups of agents – 248 Acetaldehyde [75-07-0] Chloroform [67-66-3] Cobalt [7440-48-4] and cobalt compounds DDT Magnetic fields (extremely low-frequency) Naphthalene [91-20-3] Nickel, metallic [7440-02-0] and alloys Coffee -Mixtures Engine exhaust, gasoline Fuel oils, residual (heavy) Welding fumes … Exposure circumstances: Carpentry and joinery Cobalt metal without tungsten carbide Dry cleaning (occupational exposures in) Printing processes (occupational exposures in) Textile manufacturing industry (work in)
GROUP 3: NOT CLASSIFIABLE AS TO CARCINOGENICITY TO HUMANS Agents and groups of agents - 515 Caffeine [58-08-2] Cholesterol [57-88-5] Coal dust Ethylene [74-85-1] Mercury [7439-97-6] and inorganic mercury compounds Talc [14807-96-6], Mineral oils, highly-refined - Mixtures Petroleum solvents Printing inks Tea… Exposure circumstances: Flat-glass and specialty glass (manufacture of) Hair colouring products (personal use of) Leather goods manufacture Lumber and sawmill industries (including logging) Paint manufacture (occupational exposure in)
GROUP 4: PROBABLY NOT CARCINOGENIC TO HUMANS This list contains all agents evaluated as being in Group 4 to date. Agents and groups of agents - 1 Caprolactam [105-60-2]
OTHER SITES& LISTS NIOSH Carcinogen List NIOSH Carcinogen List OSHA: Carcinogens (OSHA Web site) http://www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/carcinogens/index.html OSHA: Carcinogens International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (IARC Web site) http://www.iarc.fr/ (Updated) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) National Toxicology Program Annual Report on Carcinogen (NTP Web site) http://ehis.niehs.nih.gov/roc/toc9.html National Toxicology Program Annual Report on Carcinogen NIOSH Pocket Guide http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npg.html NIOSH Pocket Guide
CANCER FORMATION Cancer which is not a single illness, is a illness family that is characterized as its own clinical profile. Although its causes are understood, there are some theories: e.g. there are some phases between first exposure of carcinogenic agent to diagnosis of cancer and also damage of human DNA beside collapsing of immune system.
DIAGNOSIS Occupational cancer can be confused with other caused cancer. Therefore, it can be related by patient ’ s occupational past. (e.g. employee, company and insurance records) It may be defined as early diagnosis by regular health surveillance.
TAKING MEASURES First of all, the material which is defined as carcinogen should be forbidden in industry. Therefore, a substitute for this material should be researched. If there is a need of working by carcinogens, taking measures of decreasing exposure as minimum is mandatory.
MEASURES THAT REDUCE EXPOSURE Producing and carrying of carcinogens inside a closed system, Measuring exposures in working atmosphere and worker ’ s biological system, Well working ventilation system if happens an emergency, PPE, Rotation, Prohibiting of smoking cigarettes.
IMPLEMENTING REGULATION FOR THE PROTECTION OF WORKERS FROM THE RISKS RELATED TO EXPOSURE TO CARCINOGEN AND MUTAGEN SUBSTANCES AT WORK The provisions of this Implementing Regulation shall apply, where work is carried out with the risk to workers of exposure to carcinogen and mutagen substances. In activities with asbestos, without prejudice to more stringent provisions of this Implementing Regulation, the Implementing Regulation on Health and Safety in Asbestos Related Works shall also apply. In workplaces that are covered under and without prejudice to the more stringent provisions of this Implementing Regulation, The provisions of Occupational Health and Safety Implementing Regulation shall also apply. This Implementing Regulation shall not apply to activities where workers are exposed only to radiation. * Issued on the date of 26 Aralık 2003 and 25328 numbered Official Journal. This Implementing Regulation has been prepared based on the 28/6/1990 dated and 90/394/EC numbered, 27/6/1997 dated and 97/42/EC numbered and 29/4/1999 dated and 1999/38/EC Directives of European Union.
DEFINITIONS Carcinogen substance: Shall mean substances when inhaled or taken through the mouth or other routes of exposure such as absorption onto and/or through the skin results in cancer or speeds up the cancer process, Shall mean the substances, processes and the derivative substances resulting from such processes covered in Annex-I. (Art. 4)
EMPLOYER’S DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS Article 5 – Risk Assessment Article 6 – Reduction of Usage Article 7 – Prevention and Reduction of Exposure Article 8 - Information for the Competent Authority Article 9 - Unforeseen exposure Article 10 - Foreseeable exposure Article 11 - Access to risk areas Article 12 - Hygiene and Individual Protection Article 13 - Information and Training of Workers Article 14 – Workers’ Right to Information Article 15 - Consultation and Participation of Workers